Legacy of Lineage - A Timecapsule  Timeline of *Eckankar "Trivia" & More

Pre-1900 / 1900-1949  / 1950-1964  /  1965-1971 / 1972-1981 / 1982-1993 / 1994-2003 / 2004-2010

Special Note

 History / Lineage Quotes

Other Research Sites & Links


"Don't concentrate on the finger, or you will miss all that heavenly glory." - Bruce Lee

Years B.C.

(?) B.C. - Living Eck Masters? - "The Order of the Vairagi is the only pure line of spiritual Masters in the world. Although I did not go into any of the very ancient periods of Lemuria or Atlantis, nevertheless, the living ECK Masters were prominent. Some persons have tried to identify the Masters with other ancient cults but they must always remember that ECK is the pure line, the original source out of which all life, religions and philosophies have sprung. Once they accept this, then all things fall into line. Every religion, every cult, and every philosophy is only an echo or mirror of ECKANKAR."

[Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell [d. 1971], Original copyright 1971, copyright transferred to ECKANKAR 1979, 10th printing 1983, p. 196]  *Further reading ...

*Commentary: The Spiritual Notebook includes: "Although I did not go into any of the very ancient periods of Lemuria or Atlantis, nevertheless, the living ECK Masters were prominent." However, The Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad, Book One (original copyright 1970), mentions ECK Master Malati [first ECK Master of record], Kai-Kuas [during the 2nd root race, the Hyperboreans], Geutan [during the 3rd root race, the Lemurians], Castrog [during the 4th root race, the Atlantean], and Rama - sounds like Ramaj - [during the 5th root race, the Aryan]. - D.R.D.

*Trivia: "[....] The spiritual travelers are agents of God, vehicles for Divine Spirit. These ECK Masters will not interfere in the sacred state of consciousness of another being without his permission. They all work in harmony with the Living ECK Master of the time to assist those Souls who are ready to awaken to their true nature and destiny. [....]" [Based on: Article (Who Are the Spiritual Travelers?) by Joan Klemp]

*Link: http://www.eckankar.org/Masters/whoaremasters.html - [T.D. - November 2006]
*Note: T.D. =  Transcrtiption Date [date of transcription to this timeline]

*Trivia:  "[....] ... Paul [Paul Twitchell] was bringing to ECKANKAR a freedom from past traditions while incorporating the elements from them that were vital. The concept of spiritual lineage was important, but the restrictions, traditions and worship that go along with physical lineage was not. Therefore, Paul described the spiritual line of ECK Masters, not for its historical accuracy based upon historical records, but to show that as the Sufis say there is always one who is the spiritual Pole of the world, and this light has passed from continent to continent, from race to race, from culture to culture, down through time. [....]"

 [Based on: http://www.littleknownpubs.com/Dialog_Ch_Five.htm (Copyright 2000)]

*Trivia: "[....] Paul's lineage of Eck Masters was indeed mysterious. He was forced to construct a history for himself worthy of the standard he had set. Paul's great misfortune was that he wrote his numerous books at the dawn of the computer age. How could he have known the ease with which information could be checked and challenged, and the truth disseminated to millions at the push of a button? Most religions ... have hundreds if not thousands of years to create and bury the truth of their origins. In time, myth circulates as truth, and there is little opportunity to challenge it. This is not the case for Paul Twitchell and Eckankar. [....]"

[Based on: Confessions of a God Seeker, A Journey to Higher Consciousness, by Ford Johnson, Copyright 2003, p. 110]

*Trivia: "[....] THE THREE PATHS - Since time immemorial, moksha (emancipation of the soul ) has been declared to be the ultimate goal of human life and for its attainment the sages and seers laid down three paths of karma, gyana and bhakti. These three ways just conformed to the three aspects of personality- action, cognition and affection - which are in fact complementary and supplementary to each other. During the earliest period of Indian history, karma-marg dominated religion and society. It was principally laid down in the Vedas, developed and systematised in Brahamanas, Kalpa-Sutra, Mimamsa and the Bhagwata Purana. When the theory of metempsychosis and the law of karma came into being, the logical Hindu mind could not but realise that karma alone could not lead to salvation. The Upanishads, then, came forth as the first embodiment of the bold speculations of the recluses and propounded the path of knowledge. Profound thinking on cosmic origin and human destiny, the nature reality and its relation to the individual, deliverance of the soul, lead to the establishment of various schools of thought and philosophy such as Jainism, Buddhism, Sankhya-yoga and other systems culminating in Vedanta. The religion based upon the cult of knowledge remained confined to the intelligentsia or to those who renounced the family and became monks. It could not satisfy the spiritual thirst of the common people. Their craving for the higher values resulted in the establishment of the cult of the Bhakti by such religious leaders as believed that the true path leading to salvation is neither karma, nor gyana but bhakti or the true love and devotion for the Lord. [....]"

 [Based on: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9563/chapter2.html] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]
http://web.archive.org/web/20091022191918/http://geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9563/chapter2.html

(?) B.C. - First Eck Master? - "[....] Civilization formed in a primitive manner, and there appeared in the world the first ECK Master, who was without a name. He was important to the human race because his task was to minister to their needs and give to all succor and wisdom. [....]" [Based on: The Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad, Book One (Copyright 1970, 1987 ECKANKAR - Third Printing - 1997, pp. 53-54]

6 Million B.C.

6 Million B.C. - Eck Master Gakko? - "Ramaj was one of the first initiates in the ancient Order of the Vairagi. Before him was Dayaka, who was a great ECK Master in Lemuria. Then there was Kassapa, the living ECK Master who preceded the antediluvian disaster of Atlantis. The line can be traced all the way back to Gakko who came out of the heart of God into this world about six million years ago. The whole line of ECK Masters has descended from him in an unbroken lineage." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell [d. 1971], Original copyright 1971, copyright transferred to ECKANKAR 1979, 10th printing 1983, pp. 196-197]

(?) B.C. - First Eck Master of Record / Malati? - "Malati, the first ECK Master of record [among the Polarians], was sent by the Sugmad into this world to give man his first spiritual knowledge of God. [NP] For men drifted apart, fought one another for domination over tilled lands, trade, women and slaves, and what little wealth they had in precious stones. Slowly the ECK was building Its species. Then came the race of men called the Hyperboreans, and this became the age of the same name, the second root race of mankind." [Based on: The Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad, Book One (Copyright 1970, 1987 ECKANKAR - Third Printing - 1997, p. 55] - [Note: My brackets. NP = New Paragraph - D.R.D.]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Kai-Kuas? - "Living in secret and teaching to those who would give ears was the great Kai-Kuas, the Living ECK Master of these times [2nd root race, the Hyperboreans]. He was discovered by the Varkas and slain." [Based on: The Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad, Book One (Copyright 1970, 1987 ECKANKAR - Third Printing - 1997, p. 56]  

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Geutan? - "Into this world [3rd root race, the Lemurians] came Geutan, the third great ECK Master, who served the people of Mu and warned them of the coming destruction of the world." [Based on: The Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad, Book One (Copyright 1970, 1987 ECKANKAR - Third Printing - 1997, p. 58]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Dayaka? - "Ramaji was one of the first initiates in the ancient Order of the Vairagi. Before him was Dayaka, who was a great ECK Master in Lemuria. Then there was Kassapa, the living ECK Master who preceded the antediluvian disaster of Atlantis. The line can be traced all the way back to Gakko who came out of the heart of God into this world about six million years ago. The whole line of ECK Masters has descended from him in an unbroken lineage." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, Copyright 1971, 10th printing 1983, pp. 196-197]

*Mu / Lemuria: Further Reading ...

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Castrog? - "Castrog, the Living ECK Master, came into this world [4th root race, the Atlantean] to teach these olive-skinned people that the Supreme Deity was not happy with their ways and dealings in black magic. He suffered the death of the sword for his troubles, but not before warning the king that his lands and people would soon die under the waters of the sea." [Based on: The Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad, Book One (Copyright 1970, 1987 ECKANKAR - Third Printing - 1997, p. 59]

*Atlantis: Further Reading ...

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Kassapa? - "Kassapa. kah-SAH-pah The Living ECK Master before the destruction of Atlantis." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 112]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Decates? - "Decates. deh-KAH-tehz The Mahanta, The Living ECK Master of his time on the continent of Atlantis, in the city of Sar-Kurteva." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 45]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Supaku? - "Supaku. soo-pah-KOO Was Living ECK Master during one of the high periods of the civilization of Atlantis; helped to compile a number of the herbs, roots, seeds, flowers and plants which were researched in the government health laboratories." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 202]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Ramaj? - "Among the early ECK Masters was Ramaj who came out of the dark forest of what is now Germany, and made his way East. He entered first into Persia and established the Magi Order, centuries before the birth of Zoroaster, the great Persian sage. Then he went into India and there founded the Indian religion, which is an offshoot of ECK." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 188]

*Trivia: "[....] This first ECK Master was Ramaj, the founder of the Ancient Order of the Vairagi which is the secret brotherhood of the ECK Masters. It is said that out of his teachings have come the many religions of the world, e.g., Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism, Shintoism, Moslem, to name a few. His teachings were taken from the Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad, the sacred scriptures of the heavenly worlds. [....]"

[Based on: April-May-June Mystic World (1971), as illustrated in Difficulties Of Becoming The Living ECK Master, by Paul Twitchell, p. 251]

*Links: http://thetruth-seeker.com/dispBB.aspx?st=236&page=171#m230

*Trivia: "[....] Philosophical writers and religionists have proven the existence of ECKANKAR throughout history. The first saviour was Ramaj, who started teaching Its principles orally in the dawn of history. The famous line of prophets in the Israelite tribes were trained in the work of ECKANKAR, as their prophecies well show. The Greek masters Apollonius, Dionysius, Pythagoras, Socrates, Aristotle and Plato were taught the art of ECKANKAR by the ancient adepts. Practically every man who has contributed to civilization has been a chela, or student, of the hidden teachings of ECKANKAR. This is true of the sciences, literature, art, economy, religions, philosophies, the military, medicine, and psychology. [....]

[Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, Copyright 1971, 10th Printing - 1983, Chapter One: ECKANKAR, THE ANCIENT GOSPEL, 2nd paragraph, p. 5]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Rama? - "[....] Beyond Kabir was Rama and the Vedas, and beyond that the mysteries of the early religions on earth. [....]" [Based on: The Flute of God, by Paul Twitchell, Copyright 1969, 8th Printing - 1982, p. 81]

*Trivia: "Rama An early world savior. He carried the message of ECK from deep forests of Germany to India." [Based on: ECKANKAR, The Key to Secret Worlds, Copyright 1969 by Paul Twitchell, p. 249]

*Trivia: "The Living ECK Master, Rama, first known to the civilized world of the Aryans [5th root race], came out of the high valleys of Tibet to the capital city of Khara Khota and began preaching Eckankar. But he was hounded out of the empire and went back into Tibet, where he founded the monastery of Katsupari in the northern mountains. [NP] From there he went into India to teach the great science of Eckankar to its teeming masses." [Based on: The Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad, Book One (Copyright 1970, 1987 ECKANKAR - Third Printing - 1997, p. 60]

*Trivia: "It [Eckankar] has been handed down by word of mouth from Rama, the first known world savior, who came out of the deep forests of northern Germany and traveled down to Persia, where he paused long enough to give these secret teachings to a few mystics whose descendants were to become the followers of Zoroaster, the Persian sage. [NP] Rama then proceeded to India, where he settled and taught that man could have the experience of God in his own lifetime. [....]" [Based on: The Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad, Book One (Copyright 1970, 1987 ECKANKAR - Third Printing - 1997, p. xii]

*Further reading: See: Introduction to Eckankar (Copyright 1966), pp. 4, 5, 8, 28, & 31 (Introduction to Eckankar was also illustrated in ECKANKAR: Compiled Writings, Vol. I, Copyright 1975 by Gail T. Gross).

70,000 B.C. - Eck Master Yuont-Na? - Yuont-Na. yownt-NAY An ECK Master who lived and taught in the city of Khara Khota [in the empire of Uighur about 70,000?]; he now is a teacher of the Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad on the Astral Plane." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 239]- [My brackets - D.R.D.]

60,000 B.C. - Eck Master Asoki? - "Asoki. ah-SOH-kee An ECK Master still living in the same body he inhabited some sixty thousand years before the advent of the Christian calendar. Living near the city of Retz on Venus, he spreads the message of ECK throughout the planets of the physical world." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 13]

33,000 B.C. - Eck Sage Mksha? - "There are fundamental laws that govern this physical universe through Spirit. These were once taught by an ancient ECK sage named Mksha, who appeared on this earth some 35,000 years ago to teach the people of the Indus Valley. His first teaching was, 'Life is only Spirit, and being spirit it has nothing.' The understanding of this points out clearly that it has only intelligence with the peculiar ability to perceive, penetrate, survive, have causation, specialization, creativeness, beauty, love and ethics."

[Based on: The Flute of God, by Paul Twitchell, Copyright 1969, 8th Printing - 1982, p. 86]

*Note: This timeline has evolved considerably since first inception. Aside from "Eckankar" trivia, the timeline now includes history & trivia about other gurus, religions and the "New Age" movement in general. Some of these "Non-Eckankar" entries were added for historical context, some for particular relevance and/or other reasons. -  D.R.D. (alias, Etznab Mathers), 03/23/11

3,800 B.C. - Tamil Nadu - "Tamil Nadu's history dates back to pre-historic times. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in India. In Adichanallur, 24 km (15 mi) from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons and bones, plus husks and grains of rice, charred rice and Neolithic celts, giving evidence confirming them to be of the Neolithic period, 3800 years ago.[11] The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is 'very rudimentary' Tamil Brahmi.[12] Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies.[13] About 60% of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu and most of which are in Tamil language.[14] [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_Nadu]

3,300 B.C. - Indus Valley Civilization - "Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

3,102 B.C. - Kali Yuga? - "Kali Yuga (Devanagari: ..., lit. 'Age of Kali', 'age of vice'), is one of the four stages of development that the world goes through as part of the cycle of Yugas, as described in Indian scriptures, the others being Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga. According to the Surya Siddhanta, an astronomical treatise that forms the basis of all Hindu and Buddhist calendars, Kali Yuga began at midnight (00:00) on 18 February 3102 BCE [1] in the proleptic Julian calendar or 23 January 3102 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar, which is also considered by many Hindus to be the time that Krishna, an incarnation of Vishnu, died as a result of a freak bow hunting accident. The Kali Yuga is traditionally thought to last 432,000 years. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kali_Yuga] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

3,100 B.C. - Bhagavata Purana - "[....] Hindu religious tradition holds the Bhagavata Purana to be one of the works of Vyasa written at the beginning of Kali Yuga (about c.3100 BCE).[5] The Purana's mention of the Vedic Sarasvati River as a great river (maha-nadi) is evidence of the Purana's traditional date,[6] since the river dried up about 2000 BCE. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Srimad_Bhagavatam] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

3,000 B.C.

3,000 B.C. - Eck Master Gopal Das? - "Gopal Das, great ECK Master and guardian of the Temple of Golden Wisdom on the astral plane, lived in Egypt in 3000 B.C., when the Pyramids were being built by the Pharoahs at Sakkara. He founded the mystery cults of Osiris and Isis." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 188]

*Trivia: "Gopal Das. GOH-pahl DAHS The Mahanta, the Living ECK Master in Egypt, 3000 B.C., who founded the mystery cults of Osiris and Isis; the guardian of the fourth section of the Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad on the Astral Plane; he teaches at the Temple of Golden Wisdom there. [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words: The ECKANKAR Lexicon, By Harold Klemp]

*Link: http://www.eckankar.org/Masters/Gopal/

*Trivia: "[....] It is well known that the Egyptians had a system of astronomical calculations some 50,000 years before Alexander the Great, which set off dates, months and years by mathematical numbers. This was the duo-decimal system, or method of reckoning by 12 in common use. It is by the use of this system in the construction of the pyramids, that the origin of the English foot of 12 inches has been traced. Among the early races the decimal system or reckoning by 10, was esoteric and known only to the higher initiates. [NP] Much of the system which was in early use during these times was due to the efforts of Gopal Das who was the living ECK Master during these times. He introduced a simple system which was considered the duo-decimal system which is the reckoning by 12 in common use. The priestcraft tried to withold it from the public, but he was able to give out enough information especially among the ECK disciples of his times, and gradually in the centuries that followed it became better known and eventually found favor in public education. [NP] Naturally in the early days of man the decimal system was held sacred because the esoteric leaders thought it was received from the higher powers. [NP] We know the decimal system was used by mankind of the earliest archaic ages, since the whole astronomical and geometrical portion of the secret sacerdotal language was built upon the number 10, or the combination of the male and female principles. The 10, being the sacred number of the universe, was secret and esoteric, both as regards the unit and cipher, or zero, the circle. [....]"

[Based on: THE ECK-VIDYA, ANCIENT SCIENCE OF PROPHECY, by Paul Twitchell [d. 1971] Copyright 1972 by ECKANKAR, Sixth Printing 1982, p. 132] - [My brackets. NP = New Paragraph - D.R.D.]  *Further reading [page search for Gopal Das]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Tomo Geshig? - Tomo Geshig. TOH-moh Geh-shig Tomo Geshig. TOH-moh GEH-shig The ECK Master on the sixth plane, the Alakh Lok, who appears in the form of a halo of light; he studied under Gopal Das in Egypt five thousand years ago, and was the teacher of Lai Tsi, the ECK Master on the Etheric Plane; as guardian of the Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad at the Tamanata Kop Temple of Golden Wisdom, his title is the Sokagampo. He served as the Mahanta, the Living ECK Master." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), pp. 210-211]

2,500 B.C. - Osiris? - "Osiris (Greek language, also Usiris; the Egyptian language name is variously transliterated Asar, Aser, Ausar, Ausir, Wesir, or Ausare) was an Egyptian god, usually called the god of the Afterlife. [NP] Osiris is one of the oldest gods for whom records have been found; one of the oldest known attestations of his name is on the Palermo Stone of around 2500 BC. He was widely worshiped until the suppression of paganism in the Christian era.[1][2]The information we have on the myths of Osiris is derived from allusions contained in the Pyramid Texts (ca. 2400 BC), later New Kingdom source documents such as the Shabaka Stone and the Contending of Horus and Seth, and much later, in narrative style from the writings of Greek authors including Plutarch[3] and Diodorus Siculus.[4] [....] When the Ennead and Ogdoad cosmogenies became merged, with the identification of Ra as Atum (Atum-Ra), gradually Anubis (Ogdoad system) was replaced by Osiris, whose cult had become more significant. Anubis was said to have given way to Osiris out of respect, and, as an underworld deity. Anubis was Set's son in some versions, but because Set became god of evil, he was subsequently identified as being Osiris' son. Abydos, which had been a strong centre of the cult of Anubis, became a centre of the cult of Osiris. Because Isis, Osiris' wife and sister, represented life in the Ennead, it was considered somewhat inappropriate for her to be the mother of a god associated with death such as Anubis, and so instead, it was usually said that Nephthys, the other of the two female children of Geb and Nut, was his mother [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osiris] - [T.D. - 12/13/08]

(?) - Mahanta Consciousness / Osiris? - "oh-si-ris The Mahanta Consciousness as the vehicle for the SUGMAD as It appeared to the Egyptians; also their Amun Re (ah'-moon reh) and Aton (ah'-ton)." [Based on: Eckankar Dictionary, by Paul Twitchell [d. 1971] (Copyright 1973), Sixth Printing 1986, p. 108]

2,200 B.C. - Eck Master Ramamurti? - ECK Master mentioned by Paul Twitchell in October 1st,  1969 Wisdom Note. [See: Paul Twitchell Wisdom Note, October 1, 1969 - The Wisdom Notes, By Paul Twitchell, Copyright 1980, p. 45]

2,067 B.C. - Eck Master Moraji Desal? - MORAJI DESAL moh-rah-jee deh-sahl "The Living ECK Master who followed Gopal Das, and helped to write the Hammurabic Code of Laws around 2067-2025 B.C. during the time of Abraham." [Based on: Eckankar Dictionary, by Paul Twitchell [d. 1971] (Copyright 1973), Sixth Printing 1986, p. 99]

*Trivia: "Moraji Desal. moh-RAH-jee deh-Sahl The Living ECK Master who followed Gopal Das and helped to write the Hammurabic Code of Laws. [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 141]

*Trivia: "As with any dates from the early 2nd millennium BC, the dates of Hammurabi's life are highly uncertain and subject to wide disagreement among various sources, However, according to the middle chronology, Hammurabi was born around 1810 BC and reigned over the Babylonian Empire from 1792 BC until his death in 1750 BC (corresponding to 1728-1686 BC short chronology). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammurabi] - [T.D. - November 2006]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Shiv Sena? - "ECK Master who succeeded Moraji Desal." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 189]

*Trivia: "Shiv Sena. SHEEV SEH-nah The Living ECK Master who followed Moraji Desal; the Hindu who inspired Moses to lead the Israelites out of Egypt, opened up the Red Sea, and advised Moses to go to the mountain where the Ten Commandments were revealed; He is now on the Fifth Plane working under the deity Sat Nam." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 190]

2,000 B.C.

2,000 B.C. - Eck Master Yaubl Sacabi? - Rebazar Tarzs said, "That is right, but let us get to other points here. Once my Master, Yaubl Sacabi, said to me when I was in my youth long ago, 'Rebazar, how far will you go with me?' I said, 'I am with you to the death. You know that.' But he replied sharply, 'Not enough, young sire. Do you hear? Not enough. Till beyond death! Do you understand?'

[Based on: The Key to ECKANKAR, Copyright 1968 by Paul Twitchell, Fourth Printing 1985, p. 36] - [See also: Introduction to Eckankar, pp. 35, 46]

*Trivia: "ECK Master who succeeded Shiv Sena." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 189]

*Trivia: "Yaubl Sacabi. YEEOW-buhl sah-KAH-bee The ECK Master among the Mycenaeans (who invaded Greece during the period between 2000–1700 B.C.); he was the leading figure among the Greek mystery cults and is now the guardian of the Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad, the sacred book of ECK, in the spiritual city of Agam Des, the home of the Eshwar-Khanewale, the God-eaters. He served as the Mahanta, the Living ECK Master." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words: The ECKANKAR Lexicon, By Harold Klemp]

*Link: http://www.eckankar.org/Masters/Yaubl/

1,700 B.C. - Rig Veda - "It is one of the oldest extant texts of any Indo-European language. Philological and linguistic evidence indicate that the Rigveda was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent, roughly between 1700–1100 BC[4] (the early Vedic period). There are strong linguistic and cultural similarities with the early Iranian Avesta, deriving from the Proto-Indo-Iranian times, often associated with the early Andronovo (Sintashta-Petrovka) culture of ca. 2200-1600 BC. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rig_Veda] - [T.D. - 01/27/10]

1,700 B.C. - Late Harappan Culture - "Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BCE "

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Hari Tita? - "Hari Tita. HAH-ree TEE-tah The Mahanta, The Living ECK Master during the Trojan period of Greek history; he now works in the Alakh Lok, the sixth plane." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 86]

*Trivia: "ECK Master who succeeded Yaubl Sacabi." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 189]

1,200 B.C. - Eck Master Nalpa Keljina? -  Nalpa Keljina. NAHL-pah kehl-JEE-nah The Living ECK Master who lived in Greece during the time of the Trojan War, 1200 B.C." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 146]

1,055 B.C. - Eck Master Quetzalcoatl? - "Joyti Basji was living ECK Master during the extension of the Mayan empire from the Yucatan and Guatemala into the heart of Mexico. He was responsible for re-establishing the ECK mysteries which had died out somewhat after another ECK Master, Quetzalcoatl, had formed the religion of the empire centuries before. He had left Atlantis just prior to the destruction of that unhappy continent, and had gone to Mexico to establish the mysteries of ECK. This was around the year 1055, B.C." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 193]

1,000 B.C.

1,000 B.C. - Eck Master Lamotta? - "ECK Master who succeeded Hari Tita." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 189]

800 B.C. - Kapila? - "[....] One such sage, named Kapila, who lived around the 8th or 9th century B.C.E. in the northeastern part of India, after realizing in himself the Truth of existence, made a valiant and brilliant attempt to explain the mysterious Unity-in-duality to the satisfaction of those who had not known It. [....] Kapila's explanation of Reality came to be known as the philosophy of Samkhya, a word which, like Veda, means 'knowledge' or 'wisdom.' To designate the Eternal, Kapila used the word, Purusha; it is a word which had appeared previously in the Vedas to mean the universal Self, or 'Person.' And to designate the creative Energy which manifests as the phenomenal world, he used the word, Prakrti. Prakrti is identical with Prthivi, the earth-Mother of the Vedas. It is Prakrti which appears as atoms, molecules, and all the sentient and insentient world composed of the elements. These two, Purusha and Prakrti, are what we today might call 'spirit' and 'matter,' except that Prakrti is more than what we regard as matter; it is the substance of all forms, dream images, and the individual psyche. It is everything that is experienced as 'the world' - on both the subtle and gross levels. Purusha, on the other hand, is the Eternal, the unmanifested Essence, the unstained and unchanging Consciousness. It is the light of conscious Awareness which not only illumes but allows us to perceive the world of Prakrti. [....]" [Based on: History of Mysticism, by S. Abhayananda, third revised edition, 1996, p. 45] - [Paragraph indents removed]

*Trivia: "It is to the credit of sage Kapila (of ancient India, circa 800 BCE) that saw the elaboration of this system, and thereby he established the basis for all subsequent philosophical deliberations. Therefore, Kapila Muni is truly called the "Father of Philosophy".

[Based on: http://www.geocities.com/neovedanta/a67.html] - [T.D. - 08/02/09]
http://web.archive.org/web/20090829014129/http://geocities.com/neovedanta/a67.html

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Sardar Lhunpo? - "Sardar Lhunpo served as the living ECK Master in Rome during the early years of the Republic. He went into the causal world to work in ECK." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 190]

700 B.C. - Maha Janapadas / India - "Maha Janapadas *700–300 BCE"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

*Trivia: "Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: ..., Mahajanapadas) literally 'Great Kingdoms' (from Maha, 'great', and Janapada 'foothold of a tribe', 'country'). Ancient Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya [1] make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics (Solas Mahajanapadas) which had evolved and flourished in the northern/north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent prior to the rise of Buddhism in India. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahajanapadas] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

700 B.C. - Eck Master Vajra Manjushri? - "Vajra Manjushri was the ECK Master in approximately 700 B.C., in Persia." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 190]

700 B.C. - Eck Master Matax Roraka? - "Matax Roraka. MAH-taks roh-Rah-kah Appointed by Vajra Manjushri around 700 B.C. as the Mahanta, the Living ECK Master to succeed him when he was executed by King Hakhamanish I of Persia." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 136]

700 B.C. - King Haxamanis I? / Persia - "Achaemenes (Old Persian: ... [1] Haxamaniš[2] 'Friendly in Nature'[citation needed], Hellenised as ..., English ... was the eponymous ancestor of the Achaemenid Dynasty, which ruled Persia between 705 BC[3] and 675 BC. As an eponymous ancestor of the clan, Achaemenes is very often held to be legendary. Achaemenes is generally known as the leader of one of the clans of one of the ten to twelve Persian tribes, the Pasargadae. Persian royal inscriptions such as the Behistun Inscription place him five generations before Darius the Great; therefore, if Achaemenes was real, he would have lived around 700 BC. Although inscriptions label him as a 'king,'[4] the leaders of the Persians at that time were in reality tribal chieftains. Which may mean that he was the first official king of the Persians. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenes] - [T.D. 12/13/08]

612 B.C. - Eck Master Padma Gaya? - "Padma Gaya was at Nineveh when it was destroyed by the Babylonians in 612 B.C., and later watched the building of the Hanging Gardens by Nebuchadnezzar. He was also present when Solomon's Temple was destroyed." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 190]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Pythagoras? - "PYTHAGORAS pi-thaeg-gehr-uhs An ECK Master, in the fifth century B.C. who was an adept in the Ancient Order of the Vairagi, and was well known as a Greek philosopher." [Based on: Eckankar Dictionary, by Paul Twitchell [d. 1971] (Copyright 1973), Sixth Printing 1986 p. 116]

*Trivia: Pythagoras. pi-THAG-ehr-uhs An ECK Master in the sixth century B.C. who was an Adept in the Ancient Order of the Vairagi and was well known as a Greek philosopher." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 168]

551 B.C. - Trivia / Confucius - September 28th, 551 B.C.

Confucius (Chinese: ???, transliterated Kong Fuzi or K'ung-fu-tzu, lit. "Master Kong," but most frequently referred to simply as Kongzi ??, traditionally September 28, 551 – 479 BC) was a famous Chinese thinker and social philosopher, whose teachings and philosophy have deeply influenced East Asian life and thought. [....]"
[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucius] - [T.D. - November 2006]

500 B.C.

500 B.C. - Eck Master Fubbi Quantz? - "During the time of Buddha, in India, the Master Fubbi Quantz served." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 190]

*Trivia: "[....] He was an ECK Master with a large following in Persia during the tenth century at Tabriz. He was the ECK Master of Firdusi, the greatest Persian poet." [Based on: ECKANKAR, The Key to Secret Worlds, Copyright 1969, (3rd printing 2001, (Glossary) p. 231

*Trivia: "Fubbi Quantz. FOO-bee KWAHNTS The Mahanta, the Living ECK Master during the time of Buddha, about 500 B.C. He completed his mission, then immortalized his body, and is now the guardian of the Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad at the Katsupari Monastery in northern Tibet. A teacher of Firdusi, the Persian poet, he was also the spiritual guide for Columbus and encouraged his voyage to the Americas in order to revitalize the depleted nutrition of the Europeans." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words: The ECKANKAR Lexicon, By Harold Klemp - see link]

*Link: http://www.eckankar.org/Masters/Fubbi/

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Chu-Ko Yen? - "The ECK Master Chu-Ko Yen was an associate of Confucius in China." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 190]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Habu Medinet? - "ECK Master during the battle of Marathon in 490 B.C." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 190]

490 B.C. - Eck Master Jagat Ho? - Jagat Ho. jah-GAHT HOH The Living ECK Master in China during the years 490-438 B.C. who is now on the Etheric Plane as a Co-worker in the Temple of Golden Wisdom there under Lai Tsi." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 101]

*Trivia: "ECK Master who succeeded Habu Medinet." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 190]

470 B.C. - Zoroaster? - "Accoring to one report, before anyone other than the Pharaoh Akhenaton, Zoroaster introduced a practical monotheism equivalent to that the Jews and Christians think is unique to them. Zoroaster founded his religious system in the time when the Persians were migrating south of the Caucasus, from 1,000 B.C. onwards towards their eventual homeland. The date of Zoroaster's life is uncertain, no reference being made to him by the Persian kings or indeed until Xanthos of Lydia in 470 B.C., but the Gathas of Zoroaster have elements in common with the Vedas of India which date to the start of the first millennium B.C., suggesting that the religion that Zoroaster was reforming was similar to Brahminism." [Reference Source?]

(?) B.C. - Athena? - "Athena was one of the earliest followers of ECKANKAR. She is considered a legend belonging to Greek mythology, but she was, nevertheless, a flesh and blood woman who had much of the power of ECK in her grasp, although she was not an ECK Master." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 191]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Mesi Gokaritz? - "Mesi Gokaritz. MEH-see goh-KAHR-eets The Mahanta, the Living ECK Master in the early days of Greece who is the Tsong Sikhsa, the guardian of the Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad at the Anakamudi Temple on the Alaya Lok, the seventh plane." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 138]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Philias the Greek? - "ECK Master who succeeded Jagat Ho. Reportedly, Philias the Greek was the sculptor of the Parthenon in Athens." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 190]

*Trivia: - "Phidias. The Living ECK Master during the Golden Age of Greece. He was responsible for the building of the Parthenon and was more involved with the sculptures. Athena was one of his early followers." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 160]

447 B.C. - Parthenon Built - "Traditional date when the Parthenon was built in Athens as a temple of the goddess Athena [447-432 B.C.]." *Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon

356 B.C. - Birth / Alexander the Great - "Alexander the Great (Greek: ...,[1] Mégas Aléxandros; July 20, 356 BC[2] – June 10 or June 11, 323 BC),[3] also known as Alexander III of Macedon ... was an ancient Greek[4][5] King (basileus) of Macedon (336–323 BC). He was one of the most successful military commanders of all time and is presumed undefeated in battle. By the time of his death, he had conquered (see Wars of Alexander the Great) most of the world known to the ancient Greeks.[6] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great] - [T.D. - 12/13/08]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Vaita Danu? - "Following Philias came the living ECK Master Vaita Danu, who lived during the time of Alexander the Great [356-323 B.C.]." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 191] - [Brackets text added for clarity - D.R.D.]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Kita Sorgi? - Kita Sorgi. KEE-tah SOHR-gee An ECK Master during the time of Alexander the Great, who went with him to visit the Oracle of Ammon in Egypt." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 115]

300 B.C. - Soul Traveler System? - "The Soul Traveler system was initiated, or was first known in our records of spiritual travels, by Zoroaster, the Persian avatar, some few hundred years before the coming of Christ." [Based on: ECKANKAR, Compiled Writings, Vol. 1 (Copyright 1975 by Gail T. Gross), by Paul Twitchell, p. 43 - Compiled from Introduction to Eckankar, by Paul Twitchell, Copyright 1966]

273 B.C. - Indian Emperor Asoka - 273: "According to occult lore, the Nine Unknown Men are a two millennia-old secret society founded by the Indian Emperor Asoka 273 BC. The legend of The Nine Unknown Men goes back to the time of the Emperor Asoka, who was the grandson of Chandragupta. Ambitious like his ancestor whose achievements he was anxious to complete, he conquered the region of Kalinga which lay between what is now Calcutta and Madras. The Kalingans resisted and lost 100,000 men in the battle. At the sight of this massacre Asoka was overcome and resolved to follow the path of non-violence. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.indohistory.com/nine_unknown_men.html]

*Reference Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asoka
                              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Nine_Unknown

247 B.C. - Eck Master Ju Chiao? - "ECK Master who succeeded Vaita Danu." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 191]

100 B.C. - Birth / Gaius Iulius Caesar - July 13th, 100 B.C.: "Gaius Iulius Caesar[1] or Gaius Julius Caesar ... July 13, 100 BC[2] – March 15, 44 BC,[3]) was a Roman military and political leader. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pompey] - [T.D. 12/13/08]

(?) B.C. - Eck Master Ori Diogo? - "During the time of Julius Caesar the living ECK Master was Ori Diogo, who lived quietly in Rome." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 192]

Years A.D.

(?) A.D. - Mahanta Conscousness / Jesus? - "jee'-suhs An ECK chela under Zadok, the ECK Master in Judea, who gave him the basic fundamentals of ECKANKAR, and out of this knowledge came what is known today as Christianity; the Mahanta Consciousness as the vehicle for the SUGMAD as IT appeared to the Christians. See MAHANTA."

[Based on: Eckankar Dictionary, by Paul Twitchell [d. 1971] (Copyright 1973 by Gail A. Twitchell), Third Printing 1978, p. 72] - [Note: Later definitions (found in Eckankar Dictionary & Eckankar Lexicon) omit the words "the Mahanta Consciousness", etc.]

(?) A.D. - Eck Master Zadok? - "Zadok followed Ori Diogo. He was living, at the time of his ECK Mastership, in the country of Judea, north of Jerusalem. [....] Zadok saw the man named Jesus, talked with Him on several occasions, and knew His purpose in this world. [....] The ECK Master gave Jesus the basic fundamentals of ECKANKAR, who used them in His own teachings. Out of His knowledge of ECK came what we know today as Christianity." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 192]

(?) A.D. - Vairagi Master / Epictetus? - "eh-pic-teh'-tuth A Greek stoic philosopher who taught ECKANKAR in Rome during the first century A.D., and was one of the Masters of the Ancient Order of the Vairagi." [Based on: Eckankar Dictionary, by Paul Twitchell [d. 1971] (Copyright 1973), Sixth Printing 1986, p. 46]

*Trivia: "A Greek stoic philosopher who taught ECK in Rome during the first century A.D. and was one of the VAIRAGI ADEPTS." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words, THE ECKANKAR LEXICON, p. 66]

*Trivia: Epictetus was born c. 55 AD,[1] at Hierapolis, Phrygia.[2] The name given by his parents, if one was given, is not known—the word epiktetos in Greek simply means "acquired." He spent his youth as a slave in Rome to Epaphroditus, a very wealthy freedman of Nero. Epictetus studied Stoic philosophy under Musonius Rufus,[3] as a slave.[4]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epictetus] - [T.D. - 02/04/10]

200s

200 A.D. - Samkhya - Sankhya, also Samkhya, (Sanskrit: ... sa?khya - 'enumeration') is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. Sage Kapila is traditionally considered to be the founder of the Sankhya school, although no historical verification is possible. It is regarded as one of the oldest philosophical systems in India.[1] [NP] Sankhya was one of the six orthodox systems (astika, those systems that recognize vedic authority) of Hindu philosophy. The major text of this Vedic school is the extant Samkhya Karika, written by Ishvara Krishna, circa 200 AD. This text (in karika 70) identifies Sankhya as a Tantra[2] and its philosophy was one of the main influences both on the rise of the Tantras as a body of literature, as well as Tantra sadhana[3]. There are no purely Sankhya schools existing today in Hinduism, but its influence is felt in the Yoga and Vedanta schools. [NP] Sankhya is an enumerationist philosophy that is strongly dualist.[4][5][6] Sankhya philosophy regards the universe as consisting of two realities: Purusha (consciousness) and Prakriti (phenomenal realm of matter). They are the experiencer and the experienced, not unlike the res cogens and res extensa of Descartes. Prakriti further bifurcates into animate and inanimate realms. On the other hand, Purusha separates out into countless Jivas or individual units of consciousness as souls which fuse into the mind and body of the animate branch of Prakriti. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samkhya] - [T.D. - 08/02/09]

*Trivia: "[....] No distinct Samkhyan text prior to Isvarakrsna's Samkhya-karikas (ca.350-450) is extant. [....]" [Based on: http://www.acmuller.net/yogacara/schools/samkhya-uni.htm] - [T.D. - 08/01/09]

*Trivia: "Isvarak???a in his Karika described himself as being in the succession of the disciples from Kapila, through Asuri and Pañcasikha. Gau?apada wrote a commentary on this Karika."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samkhya] - [T.D. - 08/02/09]

*Trivia: "Almost all modern scholars are of view that the concept of Ishvara was incorporated into the nirishvara (atheistic) Samkhya viewpoint only after it became associated with the Yoga, the Pasupata and the Bhagavata schools of philosophy. This theistic Samkhya philosophy is described in the Mahabharata, the Puranas and the Bhagavad Gita[14]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samkhya] - [T.D. - 08/02/09]

*Trivia: "It is clear that in the popular mind and in the mind of the Samkhya philosophers, there was never any thought of heresy. Their aim was always to recapture what was to them the highest aspect of Vedic religion which had been lost. They placed their complete faith in the path of knowledge which to them was worth a great deal more then animal sacrifices and Soma (vâjapeya)."

[Based on: http://www.cix.co.uk/~mandrake/samkhya.htm] - [T.D. - 08/02/09]

203 A.D. - Birth / "Babaji"? - November 30th, 203: "[....] Babaji ["Divine Father"] was given the name 'Nagaraj,' which means 'serpent king,' referring to 'kundalini,' our great divine potential power and consciousness. He was born on the 30th day of November 203 A.D., in a small coastal village now known as Parangipettai, in Tamil Nadu, India, near where the Cauvery River flows into the Indian Ocean. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.babajiskriyayoga.net/english/about-babaji.htm]

*Trivia: "[....] Mahavatar Babaji’s real name and date of birth are not known, so those who met him during that period all called him by the title first given to him by Lahiri Mahasaya.[2] [6] ‘Mahavatar’ means ‘great avatar’, and ‘Babaji’ simply means ‘revered father’. Some of the encounters included two or more witnesses — discussions between those who met Mahavatar Babaji indicate that they all met the same person.[2][5][4] [....] Lahiri Mahasaya reported that Mahavatar Babaji did not give his name or background, so Lahiri gave him the title 'Mahavatar Babaji.' Many sadhus in India are called Babaji, and sometimes even 'Babaji Maharaj', which has caused confusion between Mahavatar Babaji and other sadhus with similar names.[6] [NP] Lahiri Mahasaya had many meetings with Mahavatar Babaji, recounted in several books, including Paramahansa Yogananda’s Autobiography of a Yogi,[2] Yogiraj Shyama Charan Lahiri Mahasaya (Lahiri’s biography)[6], and Purana Purusha: ,[7] among others. [....] Swami Pranabananda Giri, another disciple of Lahiri Mahasaya, also met Mahavatar Babaji in the presence of Lahiri Mahasaya, at Lahiri’s home. Pranabananda asked Mahavatar Babaji his age. Mahavatar Babaji responded that he was about 500 years old at that time. [1894?] [4] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahavatar_Babaji] - [T.D. - 08/07/08]

*Trivia: "[....] Babaji, the founder of the Yagoda Satsang Society, which is known in the Occidental world as Self-Realization Fellowship, is said to be several hundred years old. The only purpose of his long life in a physical body is to continue the work of Kriya Yoga. This is the same reason that Rebazar Tarzs keeps his own body as an ECK master - to serve the world and the human race by elevating all to the spiritual life. [....]" [Based on: IN MY SOUL I AM FREE, by Brad Steiger, Copyright 1968?, p. 193]

*Trivia: "[....] The fact that great ECK Masters have lived with us for centuries on earth and are here today, is one of the most important, most cheerful and most hopeful thoughts that man can have. The light of the spiritual travelers is in no way dimmed by comparison with those of the ancient past - in fact many of the ancient masters are still living with us here upon the earth world. There is an adept over seven hundred years old living within a few miles of this mud hut. He is Babaji - the master of Yogda Satsang, and there are several other yoga teachers in the same group. [....]"

[Based on: The Far Country, by Paul Twitchell, Copyright 1971, Eigth Printing-1983, p. 218 - 3rd paragraph - Rebazar Tarzs speaking to Paul Twitchell?]

*Trivia: "[....] On July 7, 1998 Babaji announced that He recently completed His Ascension and is now an Ascended Master. 2  [....]" 2. Babaji, July 7, 1998 The Temple of The Presence ®, Copyright © 1998 The Temple of The Presence ® [Based on: http://www.ascension-research.org/babaji.html] - [T.D. - 12/13/08]

300s

(?) A.D. - Eck Master Babla Mohenjo? - "During the reign of Constantine the Great the living ECK Master was Babla Mohenjo, who was one of Its greatest teachers. He had a small school for ECK chelas near Constantinople. He was at the Council of Nicaea called by Constantine in Bithynia, Asia Minor, during 325 A.D., to get Christians to settle their quarrels and support the empire." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 192]

350 A.D. - Samkhya-Karikas - "[....] No distinct Samkhyan text prior to Isvarakrsna's Samkhya-karikas (ca.350-450) is extant. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.acmuller.net/yogacara/schools/samkhya-uni.htm] - [T.D. - 08/01/09]

(?) A.D. - Eck Master Joyti Basji? - "Joyti Basji was living ECK Master during the extension of the Mayan empire from the Yucatan and Guatemala into the heart of Mexico. He was responsible for re-establishing the ECK mysteries which had died out somewhat after another ECK Master, Quetzalcoatl, had formed the religion of the empire centuries before. He had left Atlantis just prior to the destruction of that unhappy continent, and had gone to Mexico to establish the mysteries of ECK. This was around the year 1055, B.C.
   "Many others appeared between this time and during the reign of Charlemagne the Great. Then there appeared the marvelous living ECK Master Ketu Jaraul who became the secret advisor of Charlemagne for all matters. He taught the Emperor the secrets of ECK and helped him in spiritual problems."

[Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 193]

400s

400 A.D. - Diverse Religious Scene / South India - "[....] By the 5th century, the South Indian religious scene was diverse, with popular religion existing alongside Vedic sacrifice and non-Vedic traditions like Buddhism and Jainism. Indeed, the title character of the sixth century Tamil Buddhist epic Manimekalai is advised at one point to study the various Hindu schools of philosophy, such as Sankhya and Vaisheshika as well as Buddhism, Ajivika, Carvaka, and Jainism. It was in this context that fears of a Buddhist or Jain takeover spurred a large Hindu revival that reached its peak in the 7th century and continued nearly into the 2nd millennium. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramanuja] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

*Trivia: "[....] MEDIEVAL BHAKTI TRADITIONS IN NORTHERN INDIA - The medieval Bhakti movement came as a reaction to Shankaracharya's philosphical theory of Vedanta and Mayavad. Besides being questioned by scholar - saints on spiritual grounds, the theory was too philosphical for the common man to comprehend. Hence the devout Hindus turned to Bhakti. Nevertheless, the impact of Islam on Indian culture gave a new impetus to the popularity of the Bhakti cult. The virtual challenge presented by Islam, lead religious men to earnestly seek the truth of their own faith. Ramanand, fifth in the descend from Ramanuja, inaugurated in northern India a spirit of synthesis of all that was true and permanent in our spiritual heritage. He used the popular name of Rama but he meant by it the perfect God of love and mercy. Not the unconditioned Brahman of Vedanta but the beloved, the friend and the Lord of one's heart. When he perceived thst God is only one and humanity is one large family, he started preaching the gospel of love and devotion. He gave up the use Sanskrit and adopted the language of the people and freely admitted many a follower of the lower castes to his fold. Kabir, Raidas, Sena, Dhanna, Pipa, Nabha, Nanak, Dharamdas, Tulsidas, Surdas and Meera- all follwed the path of intense love and devotion. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9563/chapter2.html] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]
http://web.archive.org/web/20091022191918/http://geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9563/chapter2.html

500s

500s - Alvars - "The Alvars spelt as Azhwars(Tamil: ...) ([a???a?r], ‘those immersed in god’) were Tamil poet saints of south India who lived between the sixth and ninth centuries and espoused ‘emotional devotion’ or bhakti to Visnu-Krishna in their songs of longing, ecstasy and service. Sri Vaishnava orthodoxy posits the number of alvars as ten, though there are other references that include Andal and madhurakavi, making the number twelve. [1] The devotional outpourings of Alvars, composed during the early medieval period of Tamil history, helped revive the bhakti movement, through their hymns of worship to Vishnu and his avatars. The collection of their hymns is known as Divya Prabandha and is considered equal to the sanskrit body of work called vedas and related revelatory texts, detailing knowledge of Nature, God and the relationship between the two. [NP] The Bhakti literature that sprang from Alvars has contributed to the establishment and sustenance of a culture that broke away from the ritual-oriented Vedic religion and rooted itself in devotion as the only path for salvation. In addition they helped to make the Tamil religious life independent of a knowledge of Sanskrit. [2] As part of the legacy of the Alvars, five Vaishnava philosophical traditions (sampradayas) have developed at the later stages.[3] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvars] - [T.D. 01/23/10]

*Trivia: "The Nalayira Divya Prabandham (Tamil: ....) is a collection of 4,000 verses (Naalayira in Tamil means 'four thousand') composed before 8th century AD,[1] by the 12 Alvars, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th – 10th centuries. The work is the beginning of the canonization of the 12 Vaishnava poet saints, and these hymns are still sung extensively even today. The works were lost before they were collected and organized in the form of an anthology by Nathamuni."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divya_Prabandha] - [T.D. 01/23/10]

*Links: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/alvars.htm

509 - Birth / Adi Shankara? - "[....] The traditional accounts of Adi Shankara's life can be found in the Shankara Vijayams, which are poetic works that contain a mix of biographical and legendary material, written in the epic style. The most important among these biographies are the Madhaviya Sa?kara Vijaya? (of Madhava, c. 14th century), the Cidvilasiya Sa?kara Vijaya? (of Cidvilasa, c. between 15th century and 17th century), and the Keraliya Sa?kara Vijaya? (of the Kerala region, extant from c. 17th century).[2][3] [....] An important variant date accepted for the acharya's birth is 509 B.C gathered from three of the 5 mutts established by him. A few rare works on his life,Prachina-shankara-vijaya by Anandagiri and vyasachaliya-shankara-vijaya by vyasachala give the date of 2593 kali yuga for his birth corresponding to 509 B.C. There are also epigraphic evidences supporting this date of birth for the acharya. [[2]] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

*Trivia: "Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ??? ????????, Devanagari: ??? ?????, Adi Sa?kara, pronounced [a?d?i ?a?k?r?]); (788 CE - 820 CE), also known as Sa?kara Bhagavatpadacarya and Adi Sa?karacarya, was an Indian philosopher who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta, the most influential sub-school of Vedanta. His teachings are based on the unity of the soul and Brahman, in which Brahman is viewed as without attributes. [....] At the time of Adi Shankara's life, Hinduism was increasing in influence in India at the expense of Buddhism and Jainism. Hinduism was divided into innumerable sects, each quarreling with the others. The followers of Mimamsa and Sankhya philosophy were atheists, insomuch that they did not believe in God as a unified being. Besides these atheists, there were numerous theistic sects. There were also those who rejected the Vedas, like the Charvakas. [....] Even though he lived for only thirty-two years, his impact on India and on Hinduism was striking. He reintroduced a purer form of Vedic thought. His teachings and tradition form the basis of Smartism and have influenced Sant Mat lineages.[32] He is the main figure in the tradition of Advaita Vedanta. He was the founder of the Dasanami Sampradaya of Hindu monasticism and ?a?mata of Smarta tradition. He introduced the Pañcayatana form of worship. [....] Regarding meditation, Shankara refuted the system of Yoga and its disciplines as a direct means to attain moksha, rebutting the argument that it can be obtained through concentration of the mind. His position is that the mental states discovered through the practices of Yoga can be indirect aids to the gain of knowledge, but cannot themselves give rise to it. According to his philosophy, knowledge of brahman springs from inquiry into the words of the Upanishads, and the knowledge of brahman that shruti provides cannot be obtained in any other way.[33] [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara] - [T.D. - 08/02/09]

*Links: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/shankaracharya.htm

600s

600s - King Songtsän Gampo / Tibet - 7th Century: "[....] During Tibet's history, it has existed as a region of separate sovereign areas, a single independent entity[2] and as a vassal under Chinese suzerainty or sovereignty. Tibet was first unified under King Songtsän Gampo in the 7th century. At various times from the 1640s until the 1950s, a government nominally headed by the Dalai Lamas, a line of spiritual political leaders, ruled a large portion of the Tibetan region. During some of this period, the Tibetan administration was subordinate to the Qing Dynasty. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibet]

650 - Kitab Sirr al-Khaliqa wa San`at al-Tabi`a - 650-830  A.D. "[....] ... and the Kitab Sirr al-Khaliqa wa San`at al-Tabi`a ("Book of the Secret of Creation and the Art of Nature"), dated between 650 and 830 AD. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emerald_Tablets_of_Thoth]

700s

700s - Padmasambhava? - "[....] The Lotus Born, was an Indian sage Guru and is said to have transmitted Tantric Buddhism to Bhutan and Tibet and neighbouring countries in the 8th century. In those lands he is better known as Guru Rinpoche ('Precious Guru') or Lopon Rinpoche,[1] or, simply, Padum in Tibet,[2] where followers of the Nyingma school regard him as the second Buddha. He said: 'My father is the intrinsic awareness, Samantabhadra. My mother is the ultimate sphere of reality, Samantabhadri. I belong to the caste of non-duality of the sphere of awareness. My name is the Glorious Lotus Born. I am from the unborn sphere of all phenomena. I consume concepts of duality as my diet. I act in the way of the Buddhas of the three times.'[citation needed]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Padmasambhava]

742 - Birth / "Charlemagne" - "Charlemagne (pronounced ...; Latin: Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles the Great) (742 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne] - [T.D. - 12/13/08]

742 - Eck Master Ketu Jaraul? - "ECK Master during the time of Charlemagne the Great." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 193]

788 - Birth / Adi Shankara? - "Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ..., Devanagari: ..., Adi Sa?kara, pronounced ...; (788 CE - 820 CE), also known as Sa?kara Bhagavatpadacarya and Adi Sa?karacarya, was an Indian philosopher who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta, a sub-school of Vedanta. His teachings are based on the unity of the soul and Brahman, in which Brahman is viewed as without attributes. In the Smarta tradition, Adi Shankara is regarded as an incarnation of Shiva. [NP] Shankara travelled across India to propagate his philosophy through discourses and debates with other thinkers. He founded four mathas ('monasteries'), which helped in the historical development, revival and spread of post-Buddhist Hinduism and Advaita Vedanta. Adi Shankara is believed to be the founder of the Dashanami monastic order and the Shanmata tradition of worship. [NP] His works in Sanskrit, all of which are extant today, concern themselves with establishing the doctrine of Advaita (Nondualism). Adi Shankara quotes extensively from the Upanishads and other Hindu scriptures in support of his philosophy. Also, his works contain arguments against opposing schools of thought like Samkhya and Buddhism. [....] The traditional accounts of Adi Shankara's life can be found in the Shankara Vijayams, which are poetic works that contain a mix of biographical and legendary material, written in the epic style. The most important among these biographies are the Madhaviya Sa?kara Vijaya? (of Madhava, c. 14th century), the Cidvilasiya Sa?kara Vijaya? (of Cidvilasa, c. between 15th century and 17th century), and the Keraliya Sa?kara Vijaya? (of the Kerala region, extant from c. 17th century).[2][3] [....] An important variant date accepted for the acharya's birth is 509 B.C gathered from three of the 5 mutts established by him. A few rare works on his life,Prachina-shankara-vijaya by Anandagiri and vyasachaliya-shankara-vijaya by vyasachala give the date of 2593 kali yuga for his birth corresponding to 509 B.C. There are also epigraphic evidences supporting this date of birth for the acharya. [[2]] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adi_Shankara] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

800s

800 - Gaudapada - "Gaudapada (c. 8th century CE) (Also referred as Shri Gaudapadacharya) was a very early guru in the tradition of Advaita Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. He is traditionally said to have been the grand-guru of the great teacher Adi Shankara, one of the most important figures in Hindu philosophy and also believed to be the founder of Shri Gaudapadacharya Math. [....]"

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaudapada

800s - Nathamuni? - "[....] The Nalayira Divya Prabandham (Tamil: ....) is a collection of 4,000 verses (Naalayira in Tamil means 'four thousand') composed before 8th century AD,[1] by the 12 Alvars, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th – 10th centuries. The work is the beginning of the canonization of the 12 Vaishnava poet saints, and these hymns are still sung extensively even today. The works were lost before they were collected and organized in the form of an anthology by Nathamuni." [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divya_Prabandha] - [T.D. 01/23/10]

800s - Kashmir Shaivism - "[....] Kashmir Shaivism arose during the eighth[4] or ninth century CE.[5][6] in Kashmir and made significant strides, both philosophical and theological, until the end of the twelfth century CE[7]. [....] The Siva Sutras - The first great initiate recorded in history of this spiritual path was Vasugupta (c. 875-925).[17] Vasugupta formulated for the first time in writing the principles and main doctrines of this system. [....] Classification of the written tradition - The first Kashmiri Shaiva texts were written in the early ninth century CE.[23] [....] Spanda - The Spanda system, introduced by Vasugupta (c. 800 AD), is usually described as 'vibration/movement of consciousness'. Abhinavagupta uses the expression 'some sort of movement' to imply the distinction from physical movement; it is rather a vibration or sound inside the Divine, a throb[39]. The essence of this vibration is the ecstatic self-recurrent consciousness[40]. [NP] The central tenet of this system is 'everything is Spanda', both the objective exterior reality and the subjective world[41][42]. Nothing exists without movement[43], yet the ultimate movement takes place not in space or time, but inside the Supreme Consciousness(cit). So, it is a cycle of internalization and externalization of consciousness itself[44], relating to the most elevated plane in creation (Siva-Sakti Tattva)[41]. [NP] In order to describe the connotations of the Spanda concept, a series of equivalent concepts are enumerated, such as: self recurrent consciousness - vimarsa[45], unimpeded will of the Supreme Consciousness (cit) - sva-tantrya, supreme creative energy - visarga, heart of the divine[40] - hrdaya and ocean of light-consciousness[46] - cida-nanda. [NP] The most important texts of the system are Siva Sutras, Spanda Karika and Vijña-na Bhairava Tantra[47]. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashmir_Shaivism] - [T.D. - 11/07/10]

800 - Carolingian Renaissance - "On December 25, 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne the Emperor of Rome, and once again there was an Emperor in the west - except that the east did not recognize Charlemagne's promotion. Charlemagne ruled over his Empire with a tight fist, and over the Pope as well. He encouraged the revival of learning and, for a time, one could speak of a 'Carolingian Renaissance.' The leading light of the Carolingian Renaissance was an English scholar, Alcuin, who established a school in Charlemagne's capital at Aachen, and who reformed educational procedures in the Empire. He developed a way of writing letters compactly and neatly, which gave rise to 'Carolingian minuscule,' or what we now call small letters as opposed to capitals." [Based on: Isaac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology Of The World]

900s

900s - Vaishnavism - "People belonging to Sri Vaishnavism follow Vishistadvaita philosophy, although it is not implied that every Sri Vaishnavaite has to be a Vishistadvaitin. Sri Vaishnavism is characterized by various distinct beliefs. One of them is the role of a guru or acharya as a mediatrix (purushakara) in the attainment of the paramapadam(a name given to Moksha). Also, the followers consider the 4000 divya prabandams (sacred hymns) written by the Alvars as Tamil Vedas, equivalent to the sanskrit Vedas. Due to such primacy given to divya prabandams and classical vedanta, Sri Vaishnavism is also called as ubhaya vedanta sampradayam (literally system of dual vedanta)."

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Vaishnava - [T.D. - 01/23/10]

935 - Born / Firdusi - "Firdawsi (Ferdo'si) [d. 1020] was born in the Iranian province of Khorasan, in a village near Tus (Baj), in 935. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firdusi] - [T.D. - 01/15/07]

988 - Born / Tilopa - 988: "Tilopa (Prakrit; Sanskrit: Talika or Tilopada) (988–1069) was born in either Chativavo (Chittagong), Bengal or Jagora, Bengal in India.[1] He was a tantric practitioner and mahasiddha. He developed the mahamudra (Tibetan: phyag rgya chen po) method, a set of spiritual practices that greatly accelerates the process of attaining bodhi (enlightenment). He is regarded as the human founder of the Kagyu lineage of Tibetan Buddhism.[2] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tilopa]

(?) A.D. - Eck Master Priscus? - "Priscus followed Ketu Jaraul. He is not to be confused with Priscus Hevidius, the ECK Master who was a Roman Senator during the time of Emperor Vespasian, in 69 A.D. 'Priscus' is the only name that this Master adopted. He was in England at the time of its conquest by William of Normandy, and at the gathering in France in 1096 where Peter the Hermit preached support for the First Crusade and died in the Holy Lands." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 193]

*Trivia: "Priscus. PREES-kuhs The Living ECK Master who followed Ketu Jaraul and was in England at the time of its conquest by William of Normandy [king 1066-1087 A.D.]; preached support of the First Crusade [1095-1099 A.D.] which he accompanied; he died in the Holy Lands." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 166] - [Brackets text added for clarity - D.R.D.]

1000s

11th Century? - Guru Gorakshanath - "Gorakshanath (also known as Gorakhnath) was an 11th to 12th century[1] Nath yogi, connected to Shaivism as one of the two most important disciples of Matsyendranath, the other being Caurangi. There are varying records of the spiritual descent of Gorakshanath. All name Adinath and Matsyendranath as two teachers preceding him in the succession. Though one account lists five gurus preceding Adinath and another lists six teachers between Matsyendranath and Gorakshanath, current tradition has Adinath identified with Lord Shiva as the direct teacher of Matsyendranath, who was himself the direct teacher of Gorakshanath.[2] [NP] The Nath tradition underwent its greatest expansion during the time of Gorakshanath. He produced a number of writings and even today is considered the greatest of the Naths. It has been purported that it was Gorakshanath who wrote the first books on Laya yoga. In India there are many caves, many with temples built over them, where it is said that Gorakshanath spent time in meditation. According to Bhagawan Nityananda, the samadhi shrine (tomb) of Gorakshanath resides at Nath Mandir near the Vajreshwari temple about a kilometer from Ganeshpuri, Maharashtra, India.[3] [....] Traditionally, Guru Gorakshanath is believed to have been born sometime in the 8th century, whereas some believe it to be anytime from 8th century to several centuries later. He traveled widely across the Indian subcontinent, and accounts about him are found in some forms or others several places including Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Punjab, Sindh, Uttar Pradesh, Nepal, Assam, Bengal, Maharashtra, Karnataka and even Sri Lanka. [....] Osho regarded Gorakshanath as one of the four great innovators of Indian religion, alongside Patanjali, Buddha, and Krishna, who are to be regarded as originating the paths of yoga, meditation, and love respectively. Gorakshanath (who Osho called Gorakh) originated the search for "methods and techniques of sadhana". "Through him a new type of religion was born. Without Gorakh, there could be no Kabir, no Nanak, no Dadu, no Vajid, no Farid, no Meera -- without Gorakh none of these are possible."[4] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorakshanath]

1012 - Marpa Chökyi Lodrö - 1012: "The Kagyu begins in Tibet with Marpa Chökyi Lodrö (1012–1097) who trained as a translator with Drogmi Lotsawa Sha-kya Yeshe ('brog mi lo ts'a ba sh'akya ye shes) (993–1050), and then traveled three times to India and four times to Nepal in search of religious teachings. His principal gurus were the siddhas Naropa - from whom he received the "close lineage" of Mahamudra- and Tantric teachings, and Maitripa - from whom he received the "distant lineage" of Mahamudra-. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.answers.com/topic/kagyu]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marpa_Lotsawa

*Trivia: See: The Mystic World of Eckankar article: The Fantastic Spiritual Quest of Milarepa, by Harold Klemp, June 2005, pp. 1-2 where Marpa (p. 2) was referred to as an "Eck Master".

1016 - Naropa - 1016: Marpa's guru Naropa (1016–1100) was the principal disciple of Tilopa (988-1089) from East Bengal. From his own teachers Tilopa received the Four Lineages of Instructions (bka' babs bzhi),[8] which he passed on to Naropa who codified them into what became known as the Six Doctrines or Six Yogas of Naropa. These instructions consist a combination of the completion stage (Skt. sampannakrama; Tib. rdzogs rim) practices of different Buddhist highest yoga tantras (Skt. anuttarayoga tantra; Tib. bla-med rgyud), which use the energy-winds (Skt.va-yu, Tib. rlung; ), energy-channels (Skt. nadi, Tib. rtsa; ) and energy-drops (Tib. ) of the subtle vajra-body in order to achieve the four types of bliss, the clear-light mind and realize the state of Mahamudra-. [NP] The Mahamudra- lineage of Tilopa and Naropa is called the "direct lineage" or "close lineage" as it is said that Tilopa received this Mahamudra- realisation directly from the Dharmakaya Buddha Vajradhara and this was transmitted only through Naropa to Marpa. [NP] The "distant lineage" of Mahamudra- is said to have come from the Buddha in the form of Vajradara through incarnations of the Bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara and Manjusri to Saraha, then from him through Nagarjuna, Shavaripa, and Maitripa to Marpa. The Mahamudra- teachings from Saraha that Maitripa transmitted to Marpa include the "Essence Mahamudra-" (snying po'i phyag chen) where Mahamudra- is introduced directly without relying on philosophical reasoning or yogic practices. [NP] According to some accounts, on his third journey to India Marpa also met Atis'a (982–1054) who later came to Tibet and helped found the Kadampa lineage [3] [....]"

[Based on: http://www.answers.com/topic/kagyu]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naropa

1017 - Ramanuja? - "The traditional biographies of Ramanuja place his life in the period of 1017–1137, yielding a lifespan of 120 years. However, the unusual length and roundness of this lifetime has led scholars to propose that Ramanuja was born 20–60 years later, and died as many as 20 years earlier than the traditional dates. Any chronology depends crucially on the major historical event mentioned in the traditional biographies: the persecution of Vaishnavas under the Chola king Kulothunga and Ramanuja's subsequent 12-year exile in Melkote, in Karnataka. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramanuja] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

*Links: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/ramanuja.htm

1052 - Born / Jetsun Milarepa - 1052: "Jetsun Milarepa (Tibetan: ... Wylie: Rje-btsun Mi-la-ras-pa), (c. 1052—c. 1135 CE) is generally considered one of Tibet's most famous yogis and poets. He was a student of Marpa Lotsawa, and a major figure in the history of the Kagyu (Bka'-brgyud) school of Tibetan Buddhism. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milarepa]

*Trivia: "Milarepa was the wonderful ECK Master living in Tibet in the twelfth century whose life reads like a storybook. He began life as a black magician but later became the spectacular saint of Tibet. His secret life was concerned with ECKANKAR." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook (Copyright 1971), by Paul Twitchell (d. 1971), 10th printing 1983, p. 193]

*Trivia: "MILEREPA. mi-lah-reh-pah An eleventh-century Tibetan saint and poet who was a follower of ECKANKAR." [Based on: Eckankar Dictionary, by Paul Twitchell [d. 1971] (Copyright 1973), Sixth Printing 1986, p. 97]

*Trivia: "Milarepa. mi-lah-REH-pah An eleventh-century Tibetan saint and poet who was an ECK Master." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 139]

1095 - Formal Beginning / Christian Crusades -  November 27th, 1095: "Military expidetions were undertaken by western European Christians between 1095 and 1270 A.D. to recover Jerusalem and other Palestinian places of pilgramage from Muslim control. According to one report, the Crusades began formerly on Tuesday, November 27th, 1095." [Reference Source?]

*Trivia: "When Pope Urban II summoned the First Crusade in 1095, his plan belonged to the realm of logos. He wanted the knights of Europe to stop fighting one another and tearing the fabric of Western Christendom apart, and to expand their energies instead in a war in the Middle east and so extend the power of his church. But when this military expedition became entangled with folk mythology, biblical lore, and apocalyptic fantasies, the result was catastrophic, practically, militarily, and morally." [Based on: Karen Armstrong, The Battle For God, A History of Fundamentalism, p. xvii]

1095 - The Middle Ages - "One of many traditional dates for the beginning of the Middle Ages [1095-1304]."

*Trivia: "Traditionally, the church forbade not only research but even reading of the Bible by laymen. Throughout the Middle Ages, possession of a Bible written in the vernacular was a crime punished by burning at the stake." [Based on: The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, by Barbara G. Walker, p. 97] *Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Ages

1140 - Emerald Tablet - "[...] The oldest documentable source for the text [Emerald Tablet] is the Kitab Sirr al-Asrar, a compendium of advice for rulers in Arabic which purports to be a letter from Aristotle to Alexander the Great. This work was translated into Latin as Secretum Secretorum (The Secret of Secrets) by Johannes "Hispalensis" or Hispaniensis (John of Seville) ca. 1140 and by Philip of Tripoli c. 1243. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emerald_Tablets_of_Thoth]

*Trivia: http://www.sacred-texts.com/alc/emerald.htm

1185 - Born / Shams-i-Tabri-zi - 1185: "Shams-i-Tabri-zi- or Shams al-Din Mohammad (born 1185, died ca.1248) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim,[4] who is credited as the spiritual instructor of Mewla-na- Jala-l ad-Di-n Muhammad Balkhi, also known as Rumi and is referenced with great reverence in Rumi’s poetic collection, in particular Diwan-i Shams-i Tabri-zi- (The Works of Shams of Tabriz). Tradition holds that Shams taught Rumi in seclusion in Konya for a period of forty days, before fleeing for Damascus. The tomb of Shams-i Tabri-zi- has recently nominated to be a UNESCO World Heritage Site. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shams_Tabrizi]

*Trivia: "Shamus-i-Tabriz. SHAH-muhs-ee-tah-BREEZ The Adept and guardian of the Shariyat-Ki-Sugmad in the Temple of Sakapori on the Causal Plane; the teacher of Jalal ad-Din ar-Rumi, thirteenth century Persian poet, sage, and a follower of ECK. The scent of jasmine is often associated with Shamus. He served as the Mahanta, the Living ECK Master."

[Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 188]

*Trivia: "Who were the Shamsis? / The Shamsis were/are followers of Shamas Tabrez, a Sufi faqir whose real name was Makhdoom Shah Shamas-Ud-Din. He was born on 17th rajab 560th hijri in Shabzawar (in Ghazini). Though he was a Muslim he had been preaching his own personal religious philosophy and decided to travel to Multan, which was the center of orthodox Muslims, but his slogan of anal-haq (I am God) offended them. Charging him with blasphemy, they declared him a rebel and complained to higher authorities. He was quickly sentenced to die, in a particularly gruesome manner; being skinned alive, but even as they slowly peeled his skin from his body he kept a smile on his face. [NP] In Multan a mausoleum was raised in his remembrance by his followers who were known as shamsis. Shamas was a follower of God (Khuda - parasat), but Shamsis were becoming worshippers of graves as the time passed. [....]"

[Based on: http://sikhiwiki.org/index.php/Guru_Nanak_&_Shamsis] - [T.D. - 02/16/10]

1200s

1200 - Sant Mat - "Sant Mat was a loosely associated group of teachers that became prominent in the northern part of the Indian sub-continent from about the 13th century. Theologically, their teachings are distinguished by an inward, loving devotion to a divine principle, and socially by an egalitarianism opposed to the qualitative distinctions of the Hindu caste system, and to those between Hindus and Muslims. [1] [NP] The sant lineage can be divided into two main groups: The northern group of Sants from the provinces of the Punjab, (Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh), who expressed themselves mainly in vernacular Hindi, and the southern group, whose language is archaic Marathi, represented by Namdev and other Sants of Maharashtra.[1] [....] The first generation of north Indian sants, (which included Kabir and Ravidas), appeared in the region of Benares in the mid 15th century. Preceding them were two notable 13th and 14th century figures, Namdev and Ramananda. The latter, according to Sant Mat tradition, was a Vaishnava ascetic who initiated Kabir, Ravidas, and other sants. Ramanand's story is told differently by his lineage of "Ramanandi" monks, by other Sants preceding him, and later by the Sikhs. What is known is that Ramananda accepted students of all castes, a fact that was contested by the orthodox Hindus of that time. Sant Mat practitioners accept that Ramananda's students formed the first generation of Sants.[5] [NP] These Sants developed a culture of being close to marginalized humans in society including women, and the untouchables (Atishudras). Some of the more notable Sants include Namdev (d.1350), Kabir (d.1518), Nanak (d.1539), Mira Bai (d.1545), Surdas (d.1573), Tulsidas (d.1623), and Tukaram (d. 1650). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sant_Mat] - [T.D. - 09/06/09]

1206 - Islamic Sultanates / India - "Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

1207 - Birth / Maulana Rumi - 1207: "MAULANA RUMI, Jalal-ud-Din (1207-73)—The famous author of the greatest mystic poem called Masnavi or Mathnawi. He was just a school teacher (Maulvi) but under the powerful influence of his spiritual guide and preceptor, Shamas Tabrezi, he very soon rose to the eminent position of a great spiritual guide (Maulana) and became a teacher of mankind, in the higher (spiritual) values of life. Immediately on his death, he was worshipped as a Saint."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

*Trivia: "RUMI (Jalal-ud-Din Rumi)—(1207-1273 A.D.)—Greatest of the Sufi poets of Persia; the author of many odes in praise of his Master, Shamas-i-Tabrez. His monumental work, the immensely long 'Spiritual Masnavi' is a collection of ethical precepts, illustrated from Koran, and the sayings of Mohammad." [Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

*Trivia: "MASNAVI or MATHNAWI—A long spiritual poem by Jalal-ud-Din Rumi (1207-73), greatest of the Sufi poets of Persia, an ardent disciple of the illustrious Shamas Tabrezi (the Sun of Spirituality), a perfect spiritual guide of his time. It is a wonderful masterpiece in Persian literature and describes the plight of the outcast soul from the day of first separation from God. The book is held in high reverence and its careful study is supposed to serve as a passport to heaven."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1215 - Public Confrontation / King John, England - "When King John attempted to sell off the country's [England's] fisheries and to erect navigational tolls on the Thames, the public rose up and confronted him at Runnymede in 1215, forcing him to sign the Magna Carta, which includes provisions guaranteeing the rights of free access to fisheries and waters. In thirteenth-century England it was a capital offense to burn coal in London, and violaters were executed for the crime." [Based on: Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Crimes Against Nature, pp. 20-21]

(?) A.D. - Eck Master Ahmad Qavani? - "Ahmad Qavani, the living ECK Master during the time of King John of England, was present at the signing of the Magna Charta." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 193]

1238 - Birth / Madhva - "[....] Madhva was born on the Vijayadashami day of 1238 A.D. to a pious couple Nadillaya Narayan Bhatta and Vedavati, in a village Pajaka near Udupi ( in present day Karnataka). His earlier name was Vasudeva. [....] 'There is one God, the embodiment of positive Divinity. He is "Narayana." He is also Ishwara Brahma, Vishnu, and has many other names. You can address Him by any name.' - he preached. [NP] 'This world is God's reflection. Through this reflection only one has to try hard to realize God.' - he exclaimed. [NP] 'The entire nature extols God. His existence is evident in the sounds of sea, in the wind in singing of birds and howls of beasts. These all pay homage to God. his existence should be recognized which is possible after self-training.' he advised. He gave new interpretation to caste system prevailing during his times. (Actually he was nearer to Vedic seers in this aspect.) The caste was related more to one's nature than his/her birth. Birth was not important to determine caste. It signified one's behavior or nature. A spiritually enlightened chandala (outcaste) was better than an ignorant brahmin.' People were drawn to his teachings. [NP] By the time Madhva returned to Udupi he had good number of followers. The installation of Lord Krishna's image in the Udupi temple and establishment of eight mathas (known as the ashamathas) marked his great achievement of this period. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/madhwacharya.htm] - [T.D. - 01/17/11]

1243 - Emerald Tablet - "[...] The oldest documentable source for the text [Emerald Tablet] is the Kitab Sirr al-Asrar, a compendium of advice for rulers in Arabic which purports to be a letter from Aristotle to Alexander the Great. This work was translated into Latin as Secretum Secretorum (The Secret of Secrets) by Johannes "Hispalensis" or Hispaniensis (John of Seville) ca. 1140 and by Philip of Tripoli c. 1243. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emerald_Tablets_of_Thoth]

*Trivia: http://www.sacred-texts.com/alc/emerald.htm

1270 - Namdev - October 29th, 1270: "Sant Namdeo (29 October, 1270 - 1350)(Marathi: ?...) or Bhagat Namdeo (Gurmukhi: ...) was born on October 29, 1270 in the state of Maharashtra village of Narasi-Bamani, in Hingoli district (presently called Narsi Namdev). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namdev]

1378 - Christian Rosenkreuz? - The Fama Fraternitatis presented the legend of a German doctor and mystic philosopher referred to as "Frater C.R.C." (later identified in a third manifesto as Christian Rosenkreuz, or "Rose-cross"). The year 1378 is presented as being the birth year of "our Christian Father," and it is stated that he lived 106 years. After studying in the Middle East under various masters, possibly those adhering to Sufism[5] or Zoroastrianism, he was unable to spread the knowledge he had acquired to any prominent European figures. Instead, he gathered a small circle of friends/disciples and founded the Rosicrucian Order (this can be deduced to have occurred in 1407). [....] Others believe Rosenkreuz to be a pseudonym for a more famous historical figure, usually theorized as Francis Bacon. [....]"

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosicrucian

*Trivia: "[....] Between 1607 and 1616, two anonymous manifestos were published, first in Germany and later throughout Europe.[2] These were Fama Fraternitatis RC (The Fame of the Brotherhood of RC) and Confessio Fraternitatis (The Confession of the Brotherhood of RC). The influence of these documents, presenting a "most laudable Order" of mystic-philosopher-doctors and promoting a "Universal Reformation of Mankind", gave rise to an enthusiasm called by its historian Dame Frances Yates the "Rosicrucian Enlightenment".[3] [....] *Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosicrucian

1400s

1400 - Birth / Ramananda? - "Ramananda (1400?-1470?), also referred to as Saint Ramanand or Swami Ramanand, was a Vaishnava sant, a Ramayat (devotee of Rama). He is considered to be the founder of the Ramanandi Sampradaya religious system. He lived in the Indian holy city of Varanasi, and was a pioneer of the Bhakti movement, as well as a social reformer in Northern India. He was known for communicating in vernacular Hindi, and accepting disciples of all castes. His most famous disciples were Dhanna Bhagat, Kabirdas, Nabhadas, Pipa, Ravidas, Sain, and Tulsidas.[....] Ramananda is generally considered to have been born around AD 1400, although there is disagreement on the exact date and place of birth, due to the few texts regarding his early life. Birthplaces have been suggested as triveni sangam Allahabad, Prayaga, [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramananda] - [T.D. - 01/23/10]

*Trivia: Shabad of Ramanand in Guru Granth Sahib

* Where should I go? * My home is filled with bliss. * My consciousness does not go out wandering. * My mind has become crippled. || 1 || Pause || * One day, a desire welled up in my mind. * I ground up sandalwood, along with several fragrant oils. * I went to God’s place, and worshipped Him there. * That God showed me the Guru, within my own mind. || 1 || * Wherever I go, I find water and stones. * You are totally pervading and permeating in all. * I have searched through all the Vedas and the Puraanas. * I would go there, only if the Lord were not here. || 2 || * I am a sacrifice to You, O my True Guru. * You have cut through all my confusion and doubt. * Raamanand’s Lord and Master is the All-pervading Lord God. * The Word of the Guru’s Shabad eradicates the karma of millions of past actions. || 3 || 1 ||

(SGGS, 1195) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramanandi - [T.D. - 01/23/10]

*Links: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/ramanand.htm

1440 - Birth / Kabir - "KABIR (1440-1518 A.D.)—A great Indian Saint and contemporary of Guru Nanak. The modern age of Sant Mat wherein the Science of Surat Shabd Yoga is openly taught and first-hand experience given may be said to have begun with Kabir Sahib."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

*Links: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-1.html

*Trivia: "No written instructions had been put down for the followers of ECKANKAR, nor any part of it, until the sixteenth century when Kabir, the Hindu mystic poet, took it upon himself to unwrap the mysteries of the ancient science of Soul Travel." [Based on: ECKANKAR, Compiled Writings, Vol. 1 (Copyright 1975 by Gail T. Gross), by Paul Twitchell, p. 59 - Compiled from All About ECK]

*Trivia: "[....] The basic religious principles he espoused are simple. According to Kabir, all life is an interplay of two spiritual principles. One is the personal soul (Jivatma) and the other is God (Paramatma). It is Kabir's view that salvation is the process of bringing into union these two divine principles. The social and practical manifestation of Kabir's philosophy has rung through the ages. [10]. Despite legend that claims Kabir met with Guru Nanak, their lifespans do not overlap in time.[11] The presence of much of his verse in Sikh scripture and the fact that Kabir was a predecessor of Nanak has led some western scholars to mistakenly describe him as a forerunner of Sikhism.[11] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabir] - [T.D. - 09/06/09]

*Trivia: "A gadfly to the unthinking orthodox among Hindus and Muslims, Kabir (1440 - 1518) was a darling of the truly devout of both the communities who, on his passing away, claimed his body which was miraculously turned into flowers with each party claiming a portion. [NP] A Hindu child brought up by a Muslim weaver Niru and his wife Nima, Kabir sought to break the barriers between Hinduism and Islam by going into the heart of religion. He was more than convinced that when it comes to any scripture, "the letter killeth" and that the so-called pandits and Maulavis who miss the "spirit" unwittingly turn themselves into hate merchants. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-1.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

*Trivia: "KABIR AND HIS TEACHINGS - The central personality in the religious history of medieval India was Kabir. It is a remarkable historical fact that he belonged to a period of political turmoil and racial conflict produced by the Turkish impact. Replacing the prosaic gyana with dynamic bhakti, he stirred the socio-religious life of the country. He struck boldly at the root of caste distinctions, idolatry pilgrimages, vows, fasts and all the external paraphernalia of religious life. He preached the gospel of love to the people in their own language and attempted to reconcile Hinduism with Islam propounding the ideal of religious unity and universal brotherhood. His call resounded in almost all corners of the country and laid the foundations of the saint traditions in India. [NP] A mystic as he was, he preferred love and devotion to a formless reality. His Ram and Hari signify the Supreme Being different in nature from Rama of Ramayana and Hari of Bhagwata. As these names were common among the masses, he preferred to teach his gospel of love through them. [NP] According to him the Supreme Being can be attained through the grace and mercy of the Satguru. He exalted the Satguru to a position much higher than Govinda and said that Satguru alone can direct the devotee to a path essential for the discipline of the soul and therefore in the three worlds and nine regions none is greater than the Satguru. Kabir believed the shabd or the holy name to be the true companion of a devott. It emanated fron the Supreme Being Himself in the course of creation. Through contemplation and inner practice known as sahaj-yoga the devotee can catch hold of the shabd and traverse the higher regions of the creation. He proclaimed that the highest aspiration of the human soul is to attain ultimate union with the Supreme Being, and nothing short of it, not even paradise, would satisfy it. By practising sahaj-yoga, a devotee would cast off the evil tendencies of the mind and acquire humility, love, patience and perseverence, with the result that the self would be completely effaced. It would not mean a life of asceticism and renunciation and that both yoga (asceticism) and bhoga (enjoyment in family life) were necessary for a devotee. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9563/chapter2.html] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]
http://web.archive.org/web/20091022191918/http://geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9563/chapter2.html

*Trivia: "In 1946, Paramahansa Yogananda, one of modern India's greatest yogis, revealed in his classic "Autobiography of a Yogi," the existence of a Christ-like saint, an immortal yogi, Mahavatar Babaji. Yogananda related how Babaji had for centuries lived in the Himalayas guiding many spiritual teachers at a distance, usually without their even knowing it. Babaji was a great siddha, one who had overcome ordinary human limitations, and who worked silently, behind the scenes for the spiritual evolution of all humanity. Paramahansa Yogananda also revealed that it was Babaji who taught a powerful series of yogic techniques, know as 'Kriya Yoga,' to Lahiri Mahasaya, around 1861, and who subsequently initiated many others, including Yogananda`s own Christ-like guru, Sri Yukteswar, some thirty years later. Yogananda spent 10 years with his guru before Babaji himself appeared to him, and directed him to bring the sacred science of Kriya to the West. Yogananda fulfilled this sacred mission from 1920 to 1952, when he left his body and attained the yogic state of mahasamadhi. [....] Since that time, Babaji has continued to guide and inspire some of history`s greatest saints and many spiritual teachers, in the fulfillment of their mission. These include Adi Shankaracharya, the great 9th century A.D. reformer of Hinduism, and Kabir, the 15th century saint beloved by both the Hindus and Muslims. Both are said to have been personally initiated by Babaji, and refer to him in their writings. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.babaji.ca/NewSite/babaji.htm] - [T.D. - 01/07/07]
                  http://www.babajiskriyayoga.net/english/about-babaji.htm]

*Links: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/kabir.htm
             http://www.archive.org/stream/bijakofkabirtran00kabiuoft/bijakofkabirtran00kabiuoft_djvu.txt

1449 - Birth / Mahapurusha Srimanta Sankardeva - "1449-1568) (Assamese: ... Môhapurux Srimôntô Xônkôrdev), saint-scholar, playwright, social-religious reformer, is a colossal figure in the cultural and religious history of Assam, India. He is credited with providing a thread of unity to Assam straddling two major kingdoms (Ahom and Koch kingdoms), building on past literary activities to provide the bedrock of Assamese culture, and creating a religion that gave shape to a set of new values and social synthesis. The religion he started, Mahapuruxiya Dharma, was part of the Bhakti movement then raging in India, and he inspired bhakti in Assam just as Ramananda, Kabir, Basava and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu inspired it elsewhere. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Srimanta_Sankardeva] - [T.D. - 11/12/09]

*Trivia: "[....] Srimanta Sankaradeva was born into the Shiromani (chief) Baro-Bhuyans family, near Bordowa in Nagaon in a village called Ali-pukhuri in c1449. The Baro-Bhuyans were independent landlords in Assam, and belonged to the kayastha Hindu caste. [....] A non-brahmin, Srimanta Sankaradeva started a system of initiation (saran lowa) into his religion. He caused a huge Social revolution by fighting against anti-social elements like casteism prevailing at that time. He initiated people of all castes and religions, including Muslims. After initiation, the devotee is expected to adhere to the religious tenets of eka sarana. Failure to adhere to these tenets led to ex-communication in certain cases. [NP] Though he himself married twice, had children and led the life of a householder, his disciple Madhavadeva did not. Some of his followers today follow celibate monkhood (kevaliya bhakat) in the Vaishnavite monasteries – the sattras. [NP] The people who practice his religion are called variously as Mahapurushia, Sarania or Sankari. [....]" [check link for italics]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Srimanta_Sankardeva] - [T.D. - 02/27/10]

1452 - Birth / Rebazar Tarzs?- 1452: ""He [Rebazar Tarzs] was born in a western province of China, near Chamdo, on the border of Tibet." [Based on: Herbs The Magic Healers (1968?) by Paul Twitchell, Second Printing 1987, p. 138]

*Trivia: "... St. Catherine of Siena was an eater of the Cosmic Spirit, as is Rebazar Tarzs, the great ECK Master who has lived here since 1452. [... .]"

[Based on: Herbs The Magic Healers (1968?) by Paul Twitchell, Second Printing 1987, p. 211]

1461 - Birth / Rebazar Tarzs? - "This great Adept [Rebazar Tarzs?] is in the same line of masters descending from Rama, one of the first known world teachers, who had the unique ability to travel in the tama (soul) form, and was the original teacher of the secret science known as ECKANKAR. Rebazar Tarzs is the present messenger of the holy science of soul travel." [Based on: Introduction to Eckankar, Copyright 1966, p. 28]

*Trivia: Rebazar Tarzs was born in the year of 1461, in the mountain village of Sarana in northern Tibet. He developed into mastership under the spiritual guidance of Yaubl Sacabi. It was he who was responsible for Christopher Columbus' inner guidance. He stayed on earth for seventy-five years [until 1536?] teaching ECK, then he retired in the same body to the mountainous vastness of the Himalayas. He has spiritually developed several ECK Masters, and is responsible for the passing of the Rod of ECK power from one master to his successor. He also developed spiritually Peddar Zaskq." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, pp. 193-194]

*Trivia:

A Continuous Line of Masters

   ECKANKAR says there has been a continuous line of ECK Masters for six million years on earth. Now we have the 973rd Living ECK Master. This means that each ECK Master would have had to live an average of six thousand years. Can you please tell me where I have gone wrong in my calculations, or how this could be?

   The "973" refers to those who were known as both Mahanta and Living ECK Master. Many Living ECK Masters may serve the interval between each appearance of a Mahanta, the Living ECK Master.
   Rebazar Tarzs was a Mahanta, the Living ECK Master. After his spiritual term, he aided those Living ECK Masters who served between himself and Paul Twitchell. If a Living ECK Master translated before his successor was ready, as with Sudar Singh, Rebazar took the Rod of ECK Power in the meantime.
   In this connection, The Shariyat says that only one Mahanta, the Living ECK Master appears every five to a thousand years. This is a metaphor. It simply means that a new one may come almost immediately or not for a long time.
   The image is of the phoenix, a mythical Arabian bird. There was only one of its kind. After five hundred to fifteen hundred years or so, it consumed itself by fire, only to rise again to begin a new cycle.
   In a similar way, each new Mahanta, the Living ECK Master comes to bring a new level of spiritual awareness.

[Based on: Ask The Master / The Living ECK Master Answers Your Questions, by Harold Klemp, Book 1, How to accept God's love in your life, Copyright 1993, pp. 188 - 189]

1469 - Birth / Nanak - November 5th, 1469: "NANAK (1469-1539)—The founder of Sikhism, born in the village of Talwandi, near Lahore in the Pumjab. A scion of a Khatri family, he had close associations with Kabir and like his great contemporary, he preached monotheistic faith, compounded out of Hindu and Muslim elements and as such, was equally acclaimed and admired by both."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm] 

*Trivia: "[....] NANAK AND SIKH TEACHINGS - By the time guru Nanak came to join the line of the bhakti tradition, Islam had been well-established in northern India and its influence was visible in social life. Mutual hatred, animosity and mistrust between the two major commnities-Hindus and Muslims-had taken hold of the society. Nanak, like Kabir, asserted that God is one and indivisible, above every other being howsoever highly conceived. He is not a God belonging to any particular people - Muslims or Hindus - but is the dispenser of life universal. The universe is an illusion which is not final and abiding in itself, but real only because of God's presence in it. The ways to realise God are not many but only one. The way is neither knowledge nor formalism or meritorious action but love and faith, aiming at attaining God's grace. One should sing in His praise and mediate on His name. Those who regularly repeat the holy name and have faith and love in the grace of Satguru will attain salvation. [....] In Sikhism, Satguru is envisaged as a true and perfect being. As is God so is the guru and as it is the guru, so must be the follower. He is the central unifying personality, inspite of the rule of succession; when human form changes, the essence of personality is held to be identical with his predecessors. After the tenth guru, no one succeeded to the gaddi and the injunction of the former was that the Granth was the guru and any selected assembly of five Sikhs devoted to religious pursuit was as holy as the guru himself. [NP] The ideas of Nam and Satguru, the theory of the succession of the gurus and the sangat and the pangat present striking similarities to the teachings of the Radhasoami faith."

[Based on: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9563/chapter2.html] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

*Trivia: "Guru Nanak was born on 13 April 1469 in a Hindu family of the Bedi Khatri clan,[6] in the village of Rai Bhoi di Talva??i, now called Nankana Sahib (after the Guru), near Lahore, Pakistan.[7] [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanak] - [T.D. 06/19/07]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanak
             http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-4.html

1469
- Founded / Sikhism - 1469:

Sikhism is the youngest of the World Religions, barely 500 years old. It was founded by Siri Guru Nanak Dev Ji in 1469 who laid the basic principles of Sikhism. It offered the people a simple Sikh religion teaching "Oneness of God", whose name is TRUTH. Nine Gurus followed him who all reinforced and added to what was taught by the first Guru. After which in 1708, the holy book of the Sikhs, The Siri GURU GRANTH SAHIB JI was Proclaimed to be the only Guru by the last Guru, Siri Guru Gobind Singh Ji. This holy book embodies the philosophy and fundamentals of Sikhism. It is the only holy book of a major religion which was written and authenticated by its founders.

[Based on: http://www.sikh.net/SIKHISM/Sikhism.htm]

*Trivia: The Gurmukhi alphabet was devised during the 16th century by Guru Nanak, the first Sikh guru, and popularised by Guru Angad, the second Sikh guru. It was modelled on the Landa alphabet. The name Gurmukhi means "from the mouth of the Guru".

*Link: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/gurmuki.htm

*Trivia: "The Gurmukhi alphabet was devised during the 16th century by Guru Angad Dev Ji, the Second Sikh guru. It was modelled on the Landa alphabet."

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gurmukh%C4%AB_script

1479 - Birth / Guru Amar Das - May 5th, 1479:

"Guru Amar Das was born in the village of Basarke on May 5, 1479. He was the eldest son of Tej Bhan a farmer and trader. Guru Amar Das grew up and married Mansa Devi and had two sons Mohri and Mohan and two daughters Dani and Bhani. He was a very religious Vaishanavite Hindu who spent most of his life performing all of the ritual pilgrimages and fasts of a devout Hindu. [NP] It was not until his old age that Amar Das met Guru Angad and converted to the path of Sikhism. He eventually became Guru at the age of 73 succeeding Guru Angad as described previously. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-4.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1486 - Chaitanya - "Chaitanya was born of Vaishnava (devotees of Lord Vishnu) parents, Sachi Mata and Jagannatha Misra in Navadwip, Bengal, India in the year of 1486. His whole life was dedicated to the teachings of Lord Krishna. Even as a young boy in school, he taught that every letter of the alphabet relates directly to Lord Krishna. He would challenge scholars much older then himself to discussion on the Vedas. He would be undefeated, later taking his opponents as his disciples to help him spread the pure cult of Bhakti Yoga. [....]" [Based on: http://www.kamat.com/umbrella/chaitanya.htm]

1497 - Birth / Tulsi Das - [check date]: "Tulsidas (Devana-gari-: ..., Hindi pronunciation: ... also known as Goswami Tulsidas),[3] (1497/1532[1]–1623) was a Hindu poet-saint, reformer and philosopher renowned for his devotion for the god Rama. A composer of several popular works, he is best known for being the author of the epic Ramcharitmanas, a retelling of the Sanskrit Ramayana in the vernacular Awadhi, which is a popular Hindu scripture often referred to as the Bible of North India.[4] Tulsidas was acclaimed in his lifetime to be a reincarnation of Valmiki, the composer of the original Ramayana in Sanskrit.[5]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tulsidas]

1498 - Meerabai - Meerabai (c. 1498 – c. 1547AD) (alternate orthographies: Meera; Mira; Meera Bai) was an aristocratic Hindu mystical singer and devotee of Lord Krishna from Rajasthan and one of the most significant figures of the Sant tradition of the Vaishnava bhakti movement. Some 1,200–1,300 prayerful songs or bhajans attributed to her are popular throughout India and have been published in several translations worldwide. In the bhakti tradition, they are in passionate praise of Lord Krishna. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mira_Bai]

1500 - Surdas - 15th Century [check date]: "Surdas, the 15th century sightless saint, poet and musician, is known for his devotional songs dedicated to Lord Krishna. Surdas is said to have written and composed a hundred thousand songs in his magnum opus the 'Sur Sagar' (Ocean of Melody), out of which only about 8,000 are extant. He is considered a saint and so also known as Sant Surdas, a name which literally means the 'slave of melody'. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surdas]

1500s

1500s - Written ECKANKAR Instructions / Kabir? - "No written instructions had been put down for the followers of ECKANKAR, nor any part of it, until the sixteenth century when Kabir, the Hindu mystic poet, took it upon himself to unwrap the mysteries of the ancient science of Soul Travel." [Based on: ECKANKAR, Compiled Writings, Vol. 1 (Copyright 1975 by Gail T. Gross), by Paul Twitchell, p. 59 - Compiled from All About ECK, by Paul Twitchell]

1504 - Birth / Guru Angad - March 31st, 1504:

"The son of a prosperous Hindu trader, Bhai Pheru, Guru Angad was an ardent devotee of the Hindu goddess Durga. Lehna, as he was known before becoming Guru was born on March 31, 1504 in the village of Matte-di-Sari but eventually his family moved to Khadur. He was married to Khivi and had two sons, Datu and Dasu, and one daughter Amro. Lehna would annually lead groups of pilgrims to visit the temple of Durga at Jwalamukhi for preying and dancing. Here the flames emitted by the volcano are worshipped by devout Hindus. One day Lehna heard a Sikh named Bhai Jodha reciting the Japji, the early morning prayer composed by Guru Nanak. Finding out about Guru Nanak from Bhai Joda, Lehna decided to visit the Guru and pay his respects. Upon meeting Guru Nanak at the age of 27, Lehna became a devout disciple of Guru Nanak and renounced his former practices. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-3.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1509 - Kanakadasa - "Saint-Poet Kanakadasa (c 1509-1609 A.D.) belongs to the tradition of Haridasa literary movement which ushered in an era of devotional literature in Karnataka. Scores and scores of Haridasa have composed songs in praise of Krishna (incarnation of Vishnu). 'Haridasa' stands for 'servant of Hari', is another epithet of god Krishna. Right from 14th century to 19th, we find several Haridasas who wrote devotional compositions which could be set to music with simple instruments like Tanpura, and Tala (cymbals). They wrote kirtans, bhajans, prayers, lullabies, festival songs, and house-hold-chore songs. Written in simple and spoken Kannada, they had universal appeal. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/kanakadasa.htm]

1517 - "Protest" / Martin Luther - "In 1517 Martin Luther nailed his 'protest' to the door of the Whittenburg Cathedral, and the Empire of the Church began to crumble." [Links:  1, 2]

(?) A.D. - Eck Master Tissot Leins? - "The next ECK Master of importance to this study is Tissot Leins, who lived during the sixteenth century in France, when the Protestants were being persecuted. He was responsible for the migration of the Huguenots and those of other faiths to America." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 194]

1519 - Conquistadores / Mexico - February 1519: "Spanish Conquistadores arrive in the Valley of Mexico."

(?) A.D. - Eck Master Vardrup? - "During the early conquest of Mexico and Southwest America, the living ECK Master was Vardrup, who lived in Germany and came to the Americas to give spiritual aid." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 194]

1522 - Trivia / Japji - "[....] Going back even further, I came to the founder of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak, whom Paul [Paul Twitchell] has written about many times. Guru Nanak's most famous piece is known as the Japji. Written around 1522, it was chosen by Guru Arjan to begin the first edition of the Guru Granth Sahib, the sacred Bible of the Sikhs. The Japji opens with these words from the first stanza:

Ek onkar satnam karta purakhu

Obviously, as others have pointed out, it is likely that Paul's name for ECKANKAR came from this poem of Nanak's. A translation of the whole opening stanza goes like this:

The One Reality, the True Name, the Eternal and Creative Source of all,

Without fear, without hatred,

Timeless, unborn and self-existent,

The Enlightener through grace,

Present in the beginning before all the ages began,

He is present even now, O Nanak,

As He will always be. 

[....]"   [Based on: Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, Chap. 12]  

1526 - Mughal Empire / India - "Mughal Empire 1526–1858"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

1527 - Rebazar Tarzs / Oracle of Tirmer? - May 1527: "[....] It was a bright sunny day in May, 1527. Rebazar Tarzs was visiting the great oracle of Tirmer in the mountains of northern Tibet, when its voice came ringing down from the mountain peak across the valleys. 'Christ id dead!' the oracle announced clearly. At that very moment the attack of Rome was taking place by Constable duc Bourbon, under Charles V of France. He was trying to topple Clements VII from the papal throne. [....]" [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 130]  

1527 - Birth / John Dee - July 13th, 1527: "John Dee (13 July 1527–1608 or 1609) was an English mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occultist, navigator, imperialist[4] and consultant to Queen Elizabeth I. He devoted much of his life to the study of alchemy, divination and Hermetic philosophy. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Dee]

1528 - "The Secret of secrets / Robert Copland - 1528 "The Secret of secrets, or in Latin Secretum or Secreta secretorum is a translation of the Arabic Kitab sirr al-asrar, fully the Book of the science of government, on the good ordering of statecraft. It takes the form of a letter supposedly from Aristotle (and considered as such by medieval readers) to Alexander during his campaign in Persia. This text is taken from Robert Copland's printed edition of 1528, a copy of which resides in Cambridge University Library.  [....]"

[Based on: http://www.colourcountry.net/secretum/]

*Trivia: "The oldest documentable source for the text [Emerald Tablet] is the Kitab Sirr al-Asrar, a compendium of advice for rulers in Arabic which purports to be a letter from Aristotle to Alexander the Great. This work was translated into Latin as Secretum Secretorum (The Secret of Secrets) by Johannes "Hispalensis" or Hispaniensis (John of Seville) ca. 1140 and by Philip of Tripoli c. 1243."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emerald_Tablets_of_Thoth]

1530 - Birth / Ravi Das - "Guru Ravidas: The Cobbler-Saint of Kashi (c 1530 CE) [NP] India has had a deeply developed caste system for centuries. Artificial social differences between humans has existed in the country as of higher and lower castes. But people at large, believed that certain persons who led a pure and virtuous life and constantly engaged in the supreme effort of realization of God were above the caste and creed. These were venerated as saints and highly respected. Temples were built in the memory of holy men who belonged to so called "untouchable" castes. Tiruppani Alvar in Tamilnadu, Chokha Mela in Maharashtra, Madara Dhulayya in Karnataka were examples of such saints. Guru Ravidas, who lived near Kashi in middle of 15th century was another such saint who has left behind a great legacy. Kashi is as holy for Hindus as it is for Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs.[....]"

[Based on: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/ravidas.htm]

1497 - Birth / Tulsi Das - [check date]: "Tulsidas (Devana-gari-: ..., Hindi pronunciation: ... also known as Goswami Tulsidas),[3] (1497/1532[1]–1623) was a Hindu poet-saint, reformer and philosopher renowned for his devotion for the god Rama. A composer of several popular works, he is best known for being the author of the epic Ramcharitmanas, a retelling of the Sanskrit Ramayana in the vernacular Awadhi, which is a popular Hindu scripture often referred to as the Bible of North India.[4] Tulsidas was acclaimed in his lifetime to be a reincarnation of Valmiki, the composer of the original Ramayana in Sanskrit.[5]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tulsidas]

1534 - Birth / Guru Ram Das - September 24th, 1534:

"Guru Ram Das was born on September 24, 1534 to simple God-fearing parents, Hari Das and Anup Devi of Lahore. Known as Jetha meaning the first born, he was a handsome young man. When he grew up he could always be found in the company of religious men. One day Jetha came across a party of Sikhs who were on their way to Goindwal to pay homage to Guru Amar Das. Jetha decided to join them and also travel to Goindwal. Upon their arrival and meeting, Guru Amar Das at once noticed the young Jetha with his pleasant manner and sense of devotion. While his fellow travelers returned to Lahore, Jetha decided to stay and become a disciple of Guru Amar Das. His hard work, and devotion eventually won him the hand of Guru Amar Das's younger daughter, Bibi Bhani. They went on to have three sons, Prithi Chand, Mahadev and Arjan Dev. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-5.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1536 - Rebazar Tarzs / Himalayan Mountains? - 1536: "Rebazar Tarzs was born in the year of 1461, in the mountain village of Sarana in northern Tibet. He developed into mastership under the spiritual guidance of Yaubl Sacabi. [....] He stayed on earth for seventy-five years [until 1536?] teaching ECK, then he retired in the same body to the mountainous vastness of the Himalayas." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, pp. 193-194]

1538 - Ministry / Guru Angad - "Angad, Guru (Ministry 1538-53)—Second in succession to Nanak, original name being Bhai Lehna. Nanak recognised in him his worthy successor, with a claim to his spiritual riches (Lehna), in preference to his own sons. Nanak styled him 'Angad,' i.e., one cast in his own mould and filled by his own light, as a veritable part of his own being."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1539 - Died / Guru Nanak - May 7th, 1539 - "Guru Nanak Dev[1] (Punjabi: ... Guru Nanak Dev) (Born in Nankana Sahib, Punjab, (now Pakistan) on 20th October 1469 – 7 May 1539, Kartarpur, Punjab, India), was the founder of Sikhism, and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanak] - [T.D. 06/19/07]

*Trivia: "Among those who were able to live in their physical bodies beyond the average age and keep it in a healthy condition were: Guru Nanak who was said to be over 125 years old before he passed away." [Based on: ECKANKAR, Compiled Writings, Vol. 1, by Paul Twitchell (Copyright 1975 by Gail T. Gross), p. 84. Compiled from: All About ECK, by Paul Twitchell, Copyright 1968]

1539 - Ministry / Guru Angad - September 7th, 1539:

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikh_Gurus] - [T.D. 06/19/07]

*Trivia: "Angad, Guru (Ministry 1538-53)—Second in succession to Nanak, original name being Bhai Lehna. Nanak recognised in him his worthy successor, with a claim to his spiritual riches (Lehna), in preference to his own sons. Nanak styled him 'Angad,' i.e., one cast in his own mould and filled by his own light, as a veritable part of his own being."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1540 - Purandaradasa - "Purandaradasa (c. 1540 A.D) was a great literary figure of Bhakti movement, and revered as the father of Karnataka classical music (a.k.a. Carnatic music or South Indian classical music). Purandaradasa was a great poet, social reformer, and a great composer. He preached the virtues of leading a pious life through his songs, knows as padas. His innumerable compositions render themselves beautifully to music, whether they are lullabies, folk-songs (koläta songs), bhajans, or devotional songs. All of Purandaradasa's works are in simple metrical songs, which can be sung on all occasions, and convey devotion in the Bhagavata philosophy. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/purandara.htm]

1544 - Dadu Dayal - 1544: "Dadu Dayal (1544–1603) was a sant from Gujarat, India. 'Dadu' means brother, and 'Dayal' means 'the compassionate one'. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dadu_Dayal]

1547 - Mirabi - 1547: "As the more famous (than Andal or Akkamadadevi) of the female saints of India, Bhakti Mira or Mirabai [1547-1614] can be considered as one of the foremost mystics of the world. Worldly comforts never attracted these mystics. They have left beautiful songs and hymns to posterity which are sung to this day. [....]" [Based on: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/mirabai.htm]

1552 - Died / Gura Angad - "Guru Angad left this world on March 28, 1552."

1553 - Guru Amar Das - "Amar Das, Guru (Ministry 1553-74)—Third in succession to Nanak."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1563 - Birth / Guru Arjan - April 15th, 1563:

"Guru Arjan Dev was the youngest son of Guru Ram Das and Mata Bhani. He was born at Goindwal on April 15, 1563. In 1579 Guru Arjan was eventually married to Ganga Devi daughter of Krishan Chand in 1579. [NP] Eventually Arjan Dev was invested with the Guruship by his father Guru Ram Das in 1581 as narrated previously. Guru Arjan now left Goindwal for Ramdaspur (Amritsar) to complete the work started there by his father and to get away from his jealous older brother Prithi Chand. Guru Arjan Dev completed the two tanks of Santoksar and Amritsar and undertook the expansion of Ramdaspur. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-6.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1574 - Died / Guru Amar Das - Reportedly died this date in history, Guru Amar Das."

1574 - Ministry / Guru Ram Das - "RAM DAS, Guru (Ministry 1574-81)—Fourth Guru in the line of succession to Nanak."

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1581 - Died / Guru Ram Das - September 1st, 1581: "Guru Ram Das breathed his last on September 1, 1581."

1581 - Ministry / Guru Arjan - "ARJAN or ARJAN DEV, Guru (Ministry 1581-1606)—Fifth in the line of succession to Nanak, compiled the Adi Granth (Guru Granth Sahib), the Bible of the Sikhs containing hymns of praise to God from the writings of all the Saints whether Hindus or Muslims, that he could lay his hands upon, besides his own compositions."  

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1595 - Birth / Guru Hargobind - June 1595:

"Guru Hargobind was born at Wadali village in June 1595 and was the only child of Guru Arjan Dev. He was invested with the Guruship on May 25, 1606 just days before his fathers martyrdom. From a young age he was educated in the sciences, sports and religion as his father had insisted. Baba Buddha was responsible for overseeing the Guru's religious teachings. [NP] During the Guruship ceremony Guru Hargobind respectfully declined to wear the Seli (woolen cord worn on the head) which had been passed down on each successive Guru since Guru Nanak. Instead the Guru asked for a sword. Baba Buddha, never having handled a sword before, placed it on the wrong side of the Guru. Guru Hargobind noticing this, asked for another sword saying 'I'll wear two swords, a sword of shakti (power) and a sword of bhakti (meditation).' Henceforth the Guru would always carry two swords to symbolize his dual role of holding secular power (Miri) and spiritual authority (Piri). [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-7.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]
http://web.archive.org/web/20080619132436/http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-7.html

1598 - Tukaram - 1598 "Born in Dehu village eighteen miles away from Pune, Tuka or Tukaram (c. 1598-1649 A.D.) is the most popular saint of Maharashtra. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.kamat.com/indica/faiths/bhakti/tukaram.htm]

1600s

1600 - East India Company - December 31st, 1600: "The East India Company (also known as the East India Trading Company, English East India Company,[1] and, after the Treaty of Union, the British East India Company)[2] was an early English joint-stock company[3] that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China. The Company was granted an English Royal Charter, under the name Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies, by Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600,[4] making it the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies, the largest of which was the Dutch East India Company. After a rival English company challenged its monopoly in the late 17th century, the two companies were merged in 1708 to form the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies, commonly styled the Honourable East India Company,[5] and abbreviated, HEIC;[6] the Company was colloquially referred to as John Company,[7] and in India as Company Bahadur (Hindustani baha-dur, 'brave'/'authority').[8] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_East_India_Company]

(?) A.D. - Eck Master Ismet Houdoni? - "During the seventeenth century Ismet Houdoni was the ECK Master, who served while the settlements of Jamestown and Plymouth were being nurtured in America. He served James I of England as an advisor, and led him into making an English version of the Bible." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 194]

1604 - Trivia / King James Bible - January, 1604: "In January 1604, the newly crowned King James of England assembled England's leading clerics at his palace, Hampton Court, to denounce corruption in the church. When the discussion turned to recent Bible translations, the king announced that he had never seen a Bible 'well translated in English.' He added: 'I wish some special pains were taken for an uniform translation, which should be done by the best learned men in both Universities, then reviewed by the Bishops, presented to the Privy Council, lastly ratified by the Royal authority, to be read in the whole church, and none other.' Thus was born the book hailed as the greatest work in the English language - the King James Version of the Bible." [ Based on: article by Leonard J. Greenspoon, Bible Review, December 2003]

*Trivia: "James VI and I (19 June 1566 — 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary, Queen of Scots. Regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1581.[1] On 24 March 1603, as James I, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died without issue.[2] He then ruled England, Scotland and Ireland for 22 years, often using the title King of Great Britain, until his death at the age of 58.[3] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_James_I_of_England] - [T.D. - 12/13/08]

1604 - Adi Granth - September 1st, 1604: "Sri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ... sri- guru- granth sa-hib ji- with honorifics, IPA: ... or Adi Granth, is the religious text of Sikhism. It is the final and eternal guru of the Sikhs.[1] It is a voluminous text of 1430 angs, compiled and composed during the period of Sikh gurus, from 1469 to 1708.[1] It is a collection of hymns (shabda) or baani that describe the qualities of God[2] and why one should meditate on God's name. Guru Gobind Singh (1666–1708), the tenth guru, affirmed the sacred text Adi Granth as his successor, elevating it to Guru Granth Sahib.[3] The text remains the holy scripture of the Sikhs, regarded as the teachings of the Ten Gurus.[4] The role of Adi Granth, as a source or guide of prayer,[5] is pivotal in worship in Sikhism. [NP] The Adi Granth was first compiled by the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjan Dev (1563–1606), from hymns of the first five Sikh gurus and other great saints, or bhagats, including those of the Hindu and Muslim faith.[2] After the demise of the tenth Sikh guru many edited copies were prepared for distribution by Baba Deep Singh. [....] The Adi Granth took five years to complete and was installed in Harmandir Sahib 'the Abode of God'), popularly known as the Golden Temple, on September 1, 1604, with Baba Budha Ji as the first Granthi.[11] This original volume is presently in Kartarpur and bears the signature of Guru Arjan.[12] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guru_Granth_Sahib]

*Trivia: "[....] The same spark of the Mahanta jumped out at me when I began reading the Sukhmani, a famous section of the Guru Granth Sahib, the holy book of the Sikhs. This section was written by Guru Arjan, the fifth Sikh guru, who first compiled the Guru Granth Sahib around 1604. Here is a short excerpt:

No praises can describe the one in whom God sends His Name to reside.
Devotees are yearning for Your one glance.
O God, keep me in the society of such lovers.
God's Name is the ambrosia and the Bestower of happiness.
God's Name resides in the hearts of the True saints.
By remembering God, Soul no longer goes through the cycles of birth and rebirth.
By remembering God, the Lords of Death retreat.
The gift of the remembrance of God is obtained in the society of true devotees.
All treasures of wealth are obtained by sincere devotion and love for God.
By remembering God, our thirst is quenched.
By remembering God, the dirt of karma is washed off.
God sits on the tongues of the true saints, but only those whom He showers His grace upon become attached to His remembrance.
By remembering God, one hears the unsurpassed heavenly music.
By remembering God, even the lowly and downtrodden become famous throughout the spiritual worlds of God.
Remember, remember God.
It was for the remembrance of God that He created the whole world.
Where God is remembered, His presence is found.

[....]" [Based on: Dialogue in the Age of Criticism, Chap. 12]  

1605 - Order of the Rosy Cross - "Reportedly, the earliest writings about the Order of the Rosy Cross began to circulate in Europe around the year 1605. They were contained in a manuscript called The Restoration of the Decayed Temple of Pallas and provide the earliest known constituition of the order. A history of the Rosicrucians was written by an unknown author in 1610 but did not appear in print until four years later."

*Trivia: "It has been alleged that the original Order of the Rosy Cross was founded by the Pharoah Thothmes III in the fifteenth century B.C."

*Reference Links: http://www.watch.pair.com/TR-20-christian-rosencreuz.html

1605 - Died / Emperor Akbar - October 17th, 1605: "On October 17, 1605 Akbar died and was succeeded by Jahangir as Emperor. "

1606 - Ministry / Guru Hargobind - May 25th, 1606: "Guru Hargobind was born at Wadali village in June 1595 and was the only child of Guru Arjan Dev. He was invested with the Guruship on May 25, 1606 just days before his fathers martyrdom. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-7.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1606 - Died / Guru Arjan - May 30th, 1606: "On May 30, 1606 the Guru asked for a bath in the river Ravi by the side of the Mughal fort.  [....]" [Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-6.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1607 - Jamestown Founded - "On May 13th, 1607, Jamestown was founded."

1607 - Rosicrucianism - Between 1607 and 1616, two anonymous manifestos were published, first in Germany and later throughout Europe.[2] These were Fama Fraternitatis RC (The Fame of the Brotherhood of RC) and Confessio Fraternitatis (The Confession of the Brotherhood of RC). The influence of these documents, presenting a "most laudable Order" of mystic-philosopher-doctors and promoting a "Universal Reformation of Mankind", gave rise to an enthusiasm called by its historian Dame Frances Yates the "Rosicrucian Enlightenment".[3] [NP] Rosicrucianism was more closely associated with Protestantism than Roman Catholicism and in particular, was most closely associated with Lutheranism.[4] According to historian David Stevenson, it was also influential to Freemasonry as it was emerging in Scotland.[4] In later centuries, many esoteric societies have claimed to derive their doctrines, in whole or in part, from the original Rosicrucians. Several modern societies, which date the beginning of the Order to earlier centuries, have been formed for the study of Rosicrucianism and allied subjects. [....]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosicrucian]

1608 - Tukaram - "Sant Tukaram (1608–1650) was a prominent Varkari Sant and spiritual poet during a Bhakti movement in India. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tukaram]

1616 - Christian Rosenkreuz - Christian Rosenkreuz (English: Christian RoseCross) is the legendary, perhaps allegorical, founder of the Rosicrucian Order (Order of the Rose Cross), presented in the three Manifestos published in the early 17th century. The first anonymous public document on the Rosicrucian Order is the Fama Fraternitatis Rosae Crucis which appeared in 1614 in Kassel (Germany), introducing the pilgrim founder "Frater C.R.C", followed in 1615 by the Confessio Fraternitatis (issued with Fama (...)). In 1616 appears the Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz in Strasbourg (annexed by France in 1681) which discloses for the first time the founder's name as Christian Rosenkreutz.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Rosenkreuz]

1620 - Mayflower Landing / Plymouth Massachusetts - "According to one report, the Mayflower landing happened on November 11th, 1620. According to another report, the Mayflower passengers disembarked at Plymouth Massachusetts on December 26th, 1620."

1621 - Birth / Guru Tegh Bahadur - April 1st, 1621:

"Guru Tegh Bahadur was the youngest son of Guru Hargobind and Bibi Nanki and was born at Amritsar on April 1, 1621. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-10.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1624 - Massachusetts Colony - "In 1624, Thomas Morton, an English lawyer, founded his own colony called Merrymount in Massachusetts. Morton was a rebel who forged alliances with the local Indians, sold them muskettes and warned them of the genocidal tendencies of the Puritan colonists. In May 1628 Morton ordered a maypole to be erected in the center of his colony."

1627 - The New Atlantis - In 1627, Sir Francis Bacons' novel "The New Atlantis" was first published. It is the story of a crew of shipwrecked sailors who land upon the shores of a mysterious, unknown nation, whose people had developed a culture and technology far beyond any thing previously known. [....]

[Based on: http://www.siriusrising.com/SirianNation1.html]

1628 - Birth / Hazrat Sultan BaHU - "Hazrat Sultan BaHU was born during the year 1628 at Qalai Shorkot, a settlement at the bank of River Chenab (now in District Jhang, Punjab). He passed on in 1691, and is considered to be one of the greatest Sufi Gnostic Poet-Saints in the history of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. BaHU was a member of the Qadiri Sufi Order founded by Abdul Qadir Jilani, and eventually created his own branch known as the Sarwari Qadiri Order. Even now, Sultan BaHU's tomb remains a popular pilgrimage spot in Pakistan. It is said that BaHU authored over one hundred books and spiritual discourses! To this day, his hymns and mystic-poems are quite popular. As far as I am aware, there are only two books that have been published thus far in the English language offering substantial collections of BaHU's spiritual poetry: Death Before Dying – The Sufi Poems of Sultan BaHU, edited by Jamal J. Elias, University of California Press, Berkeley, and: Sultan BaHU, edited by J.R. Puri and K.S. Khak, RS Book Dept. (Radha Soami Satsang Beas/Science of the Soul). There are also some very nice BaHU-related websites these days featuring his poetry and hymns of praise. [....]"

http://www.innertapestry.org/columns/exploring-religion/419-the-sufi-wisdom-of-hazrat-sultan-bahu.html

1630 - Birth / Guru Har Rai - January 16th, 1630:

"Guru Har Rai was born on January 16, 1630 in Kiratpur to Baba Gurditta the eldest son of Guru Hargobind. [....]".

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-8.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1644 - Guruship / Har Rai - "At the age of 14 [1644] after having received suitable training Har Rai was invested with the Guruship by his grandfather Guru Hargobind shortly before his death in March 1644. Like Guru Hargobind, Guru Har Rai kept a contingent of 2,200 cavalry as his personal guard. After the many battles of Guru Hargobind, the times of Guru Har Rai were a time of consolidation for the Sikh community without any major battles in the Gurus lifetime."

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-8.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1644 - Died / Guru Hargobind - March "At the age of fourteen Har Rai was ordained by Guru Hargobind as the seventh Sikh Guru. Guru Hargobind bowed before Guru Har Rai as his successor. Soon thereafter Guru Hargobind passed away in 1644 having in his lifetime transforming the Sikhs into soldier-saints." [Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-7.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1656 - Birth / Guru Harkrishan - July 7th, 1656:

Guru Harkrishan was born on July 7, 1656 to Guru Har Rai and Krishan Kaur. Before his death in October 1661 Guru Har Rai had appointed his younger son Harkrishan as the next Guru as opposed to his elder son Ram Rai who was in collusion with the mughals. Guru Harkrishan was only five years old when he received the guruship. [....]" [Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-9.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1661 - Guruship / Harkrishan - "Before his death in October 1661 Guru Har Rai had appointed his younger son Harkrishan as the next Guru as opposed to his elder son Ram Rai who was in collusion with the mughals. Guru Harkrishan was only five years old when he received the guruship."

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-9.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1661 - Died / Guru Har Rai - October 6th, 1661: "Since Ram Rai had proved a disappointment to his father, Guru Har Rai appointed his younger son Harkrishan as the next Guru and passed away soon thereafter on October 6, 1661."

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-8.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1664 - Died / Guru Harkrishan - "Guru Har Rai in turn chose his youngest son Guru Harkrishan as his successor. When Guru Harkrishan had suddenly fallen ill at Delhi in [March] 1664, before his death [at eight years old], being too weak to move or speak the Guru had said his successor was "Baba Bakala". [Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-9.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1664 - Guruship / Baba Bakala - "On March 30, 1664 Guru Harkrishan decided to announce his successor, the Guru called for five coins and a coconut. He took them and being too weak to move, waved his hand three times in the air and said "Baba Bakala". Guru Harkrishan then suddenly passed away at the tender age of eight years old." [Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-9.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1664 - Guruship Teg Bahadur - 1664: "TEG BAHADUR, Guru (Ministry 1664-76)—Son of Gul Hargobind, but ninth in the line of succession to Nanak. Captained the Sikhs during the tumultuous times of Aurangzeb, was beheaded in Delhi where now stands Gurdwara Sisganj in commemoration of his martyrdom." [Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm] 

*Links: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-10.html

1666 -  Birth / Guru Gobind Singh ji -

'I establish thee as my son, that you spread My Path. Go and instruct men in Righteousness and the Moral Law, and make people desist from evil.'

I stood up, with joined palms, and bowing my head to Lord God, I said: Thy Path I shall spread only if Thou be at my back.

For this was I born into the world, I utter only how and what God uttered to me, for I am the enemy of no one. He who calls me God will surely burn in the fire of hell. For I am only the servant of God: doubt not the veracity of this statement. I am but the slave of the Supreme Being come to witness His Play. I tell the world only what my God said to me, for I will not be silenced through fear of the mere mortals. I utter as is the Instruction of my God, for I consider no one greater than Him. I am pleased not with any religious garb, so I shall sow the seeds of the Unaccountable One. Nay, I worship not stones, nor am I attracted by denomintional coats. I utter only the name of the Infinite and so attain unto the Supreme Being. I wear not matted hair, nor ear-rings, nor have regard for any such ritual, and do only what God bids me do. I repeat only the Name of One God who fulfills us, at all places. No, I utter not another's name, nor establish another God. I dwell upon the Name of the Infinite One and so realise the essence of the Supreme Light. I give thought to none else, nor utter another's name. O God, with Thy one Name I am imbued. I have no other pride. Yea, I utter only Thy Name and eradicate my endless sins. (Guru Gobind Singh, Vachitra Natak)

Guru Gobind Singh ji (1666-1708) was eight years old when he heard that his father, Guru Teg Bahadurji, had been executed at Chandni Chowk. Guru Gobind committed himself to mobilising the masses to rescue themselves from the tyranny of Mugal Emperor Aurangzeb. With this goal in mind, the Guru established a factory in Anandpur to produce swords and arms. At Paunta Sahib, a Gurdwara, the Guru planned his campaign and inspired Sikhs to fight against oppression. Guru Gobind's army grew as Muslim Hindus joined it, along with Sikhs. The Guru created the 'Khalsa' on Vaisakhi day in 1699.

Guru abolished caste and baptised his followers, giving them a philosophy for life; to fight against tyranny and to lead a noble life. Guru himself was initiated into the Khalsa and took the name 'Singh'. Guru Gobind Singh ji led several battles against Aurangzeb's forces and his two younger sons were executed when they refused to be forcibly converted to Islam. His two elder sons became great martyrs fighting alongside Sikhs at Chamakaur.

The Guru devoted himself to literary work. Guru's masterpieces are the Japi Sahib, Akal Ustat and the Sawayyas. Guru Gobind Singh ji passed to the Lords abode in 1708 in Hyderabad State. Having installed Guru Granth Sahib ji (holy scriptures) as the Shabad (the word) Guru, he passed on the decision making and governance of the Sikhs to the Khalsa Nation - the SIKHS.

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-11.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]
                  http://tinyurl.com/3uf6wap

1675 - Beheaded / Guru Tegh Bahadur - November 11th, 1675: "Finally on November 11, 1675 Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly beheaded with the sword of the executioner as he prayed."

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-10.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1676 - Ministry / Guru Gobind Singh - "GOBIND SINGH, Guru (Ministry 1676-1708)—A soldier-saint ranking as tenth in succession to Nanak, brought about the transformation of Sikhs (mere disciples) into Singhs (militant lions), a martial race for the defense of the country against injustice and tyranny of the rulers, and gave the new institution the name of Khalsa—the brotherhood of the pure, by a form of baptism, called Khanda-di-Pahul or 'Baptism of the Sword.' "

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1688 - Birth / Emanuel Swedenborg - "Emanuel Swedenborg (born Emanuel Swedberg; January 29, 1688[1] – March 29, 1772) was a Swedish scientist, philosopher, Christian mystic[2][3] and theologian. Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. In 1741 at the age of fifty-three he entered into a spiritual phase [2] in which he eventually began to experience dreams and visions beginning on Easter weekend April 6, 1744.[4] This culminated in a spiritual awakening, where he claimed he was appointed by the Lord to write a heavenly doctrine to reform Christianity. He claimed that the Lord had opened his eyes, so that from then on he could freely visit heaven and hell, and talk with angels, demons and other spirits. For the remaining 28 years of his life, he wrote and published 18 theological works, of which the best known was Heaven and Hell (1758),[5] and several unpublished theological works. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emanuel_Swedenborg]

1692 - Kuljam Swaroop - 1692: "[...] The first compilation of the Holy Kuljam Swaroop, in its original handwritten form in 18,758 verses (chaupai), was done by one devotee Sundersath called Keshavdas, in the period 1692-1694 AD. [... .]"

[Based on: http://www.nijanand.org/new/kuljam_swaroop.htm]

1700s

1708 - Died / Guru Gobind Singh ji - "Guru Gobind Singh ji passed to the Lords abode in 1708 in Hyderabad State. Having installed Guru Granth Sahib ji (holy scriptures) as the Shabad (the word) Guru, he passed on the decision making and governance of the Sikhs to the Khalsa Nation - the SIKHS."

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-11.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1716 - Sikh Confederacy / India - "Sikh Confederacy 1716–1799"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

*Trivia: "The Sikh Empire was a state[1] that existed in parts of present-day India and Pakistan from 1733 to 1849.[2] It consisted of a collection of autonomous Punjabi Sikh Misls, which were governed by Misldars[3], mainly in the Punjab, the Khalsa 's main land of ruling. The Sikh Khalsa Armies were loosely and politically linked but strongly bounded together in the cultural and religious spheres. The records for these were kept at capitals Gujranwala (1799-1802) as well as Lahore and Amritsar (1802-1849). As the Sikh Khalsa Army formally called Dal Khalsa grew to new regions which it administered and new Misldars came to the fore and the number of large misls eventually increased to 12 (~70000 Cavalry). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikh_Confederacy] - [T.D. - 07/16/09]

(?) A.D. - Eck Master Hipolito Fayolle? - "ECK Master during the eighteenth century." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 194]

(?) A.D. - Eck Master Janos Moneta? - "ECK Master during the early eighteenth century." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, pp. 194-195]

1712 - Count of St. Germain - The Count of St. Germain (born 1712?;[3] died 27 February 1784[4]) has been variously described as a courtier, adventurer, charlatan, inventor, alchemist, pianist, violinist and an amateur composer. He achieved great prominence in European high society of the mid-1700s, and since then various scholars have linked him to mysticism, occultism, secret societies, and various conspiracy theories. Contemporaries referred to him (often ironically) as 'the Wonderman'.[5] Colin Wilson describes him as a charlatan, yet nevertheless possessed of genius.[6] His name has occasionally caused him to be confused with Claude Louis, Comte de Saint-Germain, a noted French general, and Robert-Francois Quesnay de Saint Germain, an active occultist.[7]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Count_of_St_Germain]

1734 - Birth / Franz Anton Mesmer - "Franz Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815), sometimes, albeit incorrectly, referred to as Friedrich Anton Mesmer, was a German physician with an interest in Astronomy, who theorised that there was a natural energetic transference that occurred between all animated and inanimate objects that he called magnétisme animal (animal magnetism[1]) and other spiritual forces often grouped together as mesmerism. The evolution of Mesmer's ideas and practices led Scottish surgeon James Braid to develop hypnosis in 1842. Mesmer's name is the root of the English verb 'mesmerise'. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Mesmer]

1738 - Birth / Ramanand Swami - 1738: "Ramanand Swami ... was born Shri Rama Sharma to a Brahmin family in Ayodhya in 1738. His parents were Ajay Sharma (father) and Sumati (mother). He was considered to be the incarnation of Uddhavaji, a close friend of Krishna. Ramanand Swami was the founder and head of the Uddhav Sampraday. [1][2] In 1802, Ramanand Swami passed the reins of the Uddhav Sampraday to Swaminarayan and died. [3] [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramanand_Swami]

1753 - Birth / Shaykh Ahmad Ahsa'i - "Shaykh Ahmad ibn Zayn al-Dín ibn Ibráhím al-Ahsá'í (Arabic: ...) was (1753–1826) was the founder of a 19th century Shi`i school in the Persian and Ottoman empires, whose followers are known as Shaykhís. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaykh_Ahmad-i-Ahsa%27i]

*Trivia: "The emergence of the Bab and the Babi movement happened once the Shaykhi movement's structure and unity had collapsed in 1843/44."

[Based on: http://bss.sfsu.edu/behrooz/Page-Hist-Qajar-ulama.htm]

1757 - Company Rule / India - "Company rule in India 1757–1858"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

*Trivia: "[....] The East India Company traded mainly in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpetre, tea, and opium. The Company also came to rule large areas of India, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions, to the exclusion, gradually, of its commercial pursuits; it effectively functioned as a megacorporation. Company rule in India, which effectively began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey, lasted until 1858, when, following the events of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and under the Government of India Act 1858, the British Crown assumed direct administration of India in the new British Raj. The Company itself was finally dissolved on 1 January 1874, as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act. The East India Company often issued coinage bearing its stamp in the regions it had control over. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_East_India_Company]

1757 - Born / William Blake - November 28th, 1757: "William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of both the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age. [....] Reverent of the Bible but hostile to the Church of England - indeed, to all forms of organised religion - Blake was influenced by the ideals and ambitions of the French and American revolutions,[7] as well as by such thinkers as Jakob Böhme and Emanuel Swedenborg.[8] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Blake]

1758 - Heaven and Hell / Emanuel Swedenborg -

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emanuel_Swedenborg]

1762 - Trivia / Sikh Khalsa Army - "[....] The military power levels of the Sikh Khalsa Army increased dramatically after 1762, this led to rapid increase in territory [....]."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikh_Confederacy] - [T.D. - 07/16/09]

1763 - Birth / Tulsi Sahib - 1763: "TULSI or TULSI SAHIB (1763-1843)—Shama Rao Peshwa, the elder brother of Baji Rao Peshwa. Renouncing all worldly ambitions for spiritual enlightemnent, he settled at Hathras as Tulsi Sahib: author of Ghat Ramayana, the inner version of the great epic; passed his spiritual mantle on to Soami Ji Maharaj of Agra who greatly venerated his mentor from quite an early age when he came under his influence." [Based on: http:/www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1766 - On the Influence of the Planets on the Human Body / Franz Anton Mesmer -

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_Mesmer]

1772 - Birth / Rammohun Roy - "Born in a devout Brahman family in 1772 and brought up in a strictly religious atmosphere, Rammohun Roy rebelled against all the Brahmanical traditions and conservatism and came to be acknowledged as the herald of the age of reason in India. He was a scholar of Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit and Bengali. He studied English language and literature which braoght home to him the whole range of western liberal thought. Later he learnt Hebrew, Greek and Latin in order to understand Christanity through the original texts. He developed a broad vision and adopted a critical attitude towards socio-religious and political problems. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9563/chapter1.html] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]
http://web.archive.org/web/20091022191917/http://geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9563/chapter1.html

1781 - Birth / Swaminarayan - April 2nd, 1781: "Swaminarayan ... Sva-mi-na-ra-yan.a) (2 April 1781 – 1 June 1830), also known as Sahajanand Swami, is the central figure in a modern sect of Hinduism known as the Swaminarayan Faith, a form of Vaishnavism.[2] Within the faith, Swaminarayan is equated with the Supreme Being, Purushottama, or is venerated as an incarnation of Narayana from the Nara-Narayana deity pair. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Swaminarayan]

1785 - English Translation / Bhagavad Gita - "[...] The culmination of this incipient interest in India by European intellectuals was the first English translation from the Sanskrit of the great Indian religious classic, Bhagvat-Geeta or Dialogues of Kreeshna and Arjoon by Charles Wilkins in 1785 (33). This work was published under the auspices of the newly formed Asiatik Society of Bengal (1784) formed by Sir William Jones, a linguistic scholar who was appointed as a judge-advocate of the English Supreme Court in India. [....]" [Based on: http://www.esoteric.msu.edu/VolumeIII/HTML/Irwin.html]

1788 - All Religions are One / William Blake - 1788: All Religions are One is the title of a series of philosophical aphorisms by William Blake, written in 1788. Following on from his initial experiments with relief etching in the non-textual The Approach of Doom (1787), All Religions are One and There is No Natural Religion represent Blake's first successful attempt to combine image and text via relief etching, and are thus the earliest of his illuminated manuscripts. As such, they serve as a significant milestone in Blake's career; as Peter Ackroyd points out, "his newly invented form now changed the nature of his expression. It had enlarged his range; with relief etching, the words inscribed like those of God upon the tables of law, Blake could acquire a new role."[1] [....]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All_Religions_Are_One]

1793 - Atlantis Trivia - 1793: "[....] Plato described Atlantis in two of his dialogues, the Timaeus and Critias, placing it 'west of the straits which you call the pillars of Hercules', i.e. in the Atlantic Ocean. Thomas Taylor, who was responsible for bringing these two dialogues into what he called a 'modern' tongue, was himself very appreciative of the mystical and occult side of Plato's writings. Blavatsky said that Jowett knew more Greek but Thomas Taylor knew more Plato. Finally in 1793 Thomas Taylor brought the substance of these dialogues into English. Taylor writes in his introduction:

It is a singular circumstance, that though there is not, perhaps, any thing among the writings of the ancients which has more generally attracted the attention of the learned in every age than the Atlantic history of Plato, yet no more than one single passage of about twenty or thirty lines has, prior to my translation of the Timaeus, appeared in any modern language. (Thomas Taylor, Introduction to Critias, published along with Timaeus and other dialogues in 1793. The Critias was not translated by Taylor until 1804.)

[....]"

[Based on: http://www.blavatsky.net/science/atlantis/articles/background.htm]

1796 - "Maha Nirvana Tantra" - "[....] Between 1796 and 1797 the trio of Carey, Vidyavagish and Roy fabricated a spurious religious work known as the 'Maha Nirvana Tantra' (or "Book of the Great Liberation")[8] and attempted to portray it as an ancient religious text to 'the One True God', which was actually the Holy Spirit of Christianity masquerading as Brahma. The document's judicial sections were used in the law courts of the English Settlement in Bengal as Hindu Law for adjudicating upon property disputes of the zamindari. However, British magistrates and collectors[who?] began to suspect it as a forgery; its usage, as well as the reliance on pundits as sources of Hindu Law, was quickly deprecated. Vidyavagish has a brief falling out with Carey and separated from the group but maintained ties to Ram Mohan Roy.[9] The Maha Nirvana Tantra's significance for Brahmoism lay in the wealth that accumulated to Rammohan Roy and Dwarkanath Tagore by its judicial use, and not due to any religious wisdom within. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ram_Mohan_Roy]

1799 - Sikh Empire / India - "Sikh Empire 1799–1849"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India]

18th Century - Council of Light - "[....] The idea of a secret organization of enlightened mystics, guiding the spiritual development of the human race, was pioneered in the late eighteenth century by Karl von Eckartshausen in his book The Cloud upon the Sanctuary; Eckartshausen called this body of mystics, who remained active after their physical deaths on earth, the Council of Light.[2][3] Eckartshausen's proposed communion of living and dead mystics, in turn, drew partially on Christian ideas such as the Communion of the Saints, and partially on previously circulating European ideas about secret societies of enlightened, mystical, or magic adepts typified by the Rosicrucians and the Illuminati.[4] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_White_Brotherhood]

1800s

1800s - Second Great Awakening / U.S.A. - "The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States, which expressed Arminian theology by which every person could be saved through revivals. It enrolled millions of new members, and led to the formation of new denominations. Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age. The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the Second Coming of Jesus Christ.[1] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Great_Awakening]

1802 - Birth / Phineas P. Quimby - February 16th, 1802: "[....] Phineas Parkhurst Quimby [d. Jan 16th, 1866], who was known as 'Park,' was born on February 16, 1802, in Lebanon, New Hampshire. He was apprenticed as a clockmaker and had little traditional education. Several important elements of his life led to the development of his ideas of mental healing. [....]" [Based on: http://phineasquimby.wwwhubs.com/]

1806 - Birth / Hazrat Babajan - 1806: "Hazrat Babajan (c. 1806 - September 21, 1931) was a Baloch Muslim saint considered by her followers to be a sadguru or qutub. Born in Balochistan, Afghanistan, she lived the final 25 years of her life in Pune, India. [....]" [See: Master to Meher Baba]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hazrat_Babajan]

1809 - "New Age" - 1809: "The term New Age was used as early as 1809 by William Blake who described a belief in a spiritual and artistic 'New Age' in his preface to Milton: a Poem. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Age]

*Reference Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milton:_a_Poem
http://www.blakearchive.org/exist/blake/archive/work.xq?workid=milton&java=yes

1810 - Birth / "Eliphas Lévi" - February 8th, 1810: "Eliphas Lévi, born Alphonse Louis Constant, (February 8, 1810 - May 31, 1875) was a French occult author and purported magician.[1] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eliphas_Levi]

1818 - Birth / Seth Shiv Dayal Singh - August 25th, 1818: "Shri Shiv Dayal Singhji who was later named Soamiji Maharaj was born on 25th August 1818, in a Khatri family residing in Panni Gali, Agra. His father, Dilwali Singh, a banker by profession was a highly religious person. Indeed, all members of the family were devout bhaktas and frequently visited Tulsi Saheb - a great saint who lived at Hathras (U.P.). Thus Soamiji grew up in an atmosphere charged with religious devotion and conductive to the formulation of his religious ideas. [....]

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-14.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]
http://web.archive.org/web/20071118142923/http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-14.html

*Trivia: "SHIV DAYAL SINGH JI, Soami (1818-1878)—Seth Shiv Dayal Singh Ji of Agra, popularly known as Soami Ji Maharaj who, in the modern age, revived the teachings of ancient Masters including those of the later times like Kabir and Nanak; with emphasis on the Surat Shabd Yoga or Yoga of the Sound Current providing way back to the Kingdom of God from where this creative life-principle descended." [Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

1819 - Birth / Siyyid `Alí Muhammad Shírází - "Siyyid `Alí Muhammad Shírází (Persian: ...) (October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850) was the founder of Bábism, and one of three central figures of the Bahá'í Faith. He was a merchant from Shíráz, Persia, who at the age of twenty-four (on May 23, 1844) claimed to be the promised Qáim (or Mahdi). After his declaration he took the title of Báb (Arabic: ...) meaning "Gate". He composed hundreds of letters and books (often termed tablets) in which he stated his messianic claims and defined his teachings, which constituted a new sharí'ah or religious law. His movement eventually acquired tens of thousands of supporters, was opposed by Iran's Shi'a clergy, and was suppressed by the Iranian government, leading to the persecution and killing of thousands of his followers, called Bábís. In 1850, at the age of thirty, the Báb was shot by a firing squad in Tabríz. [NP] Bahá'ís claim that the Báb was also the spiritual return of Elijah and John the Baptist, that he was the "Ushídar-Máh" referred to in the Zoroastrian scriptures,[1] and that he was the forerunner of their own religion. Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, was a follower of the Báb and claimed to be the fulfillment of his promise that God would send another messenger. [....]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%A1b]

1825 - Birth / Augustus Le Plongeon - May 4th, 1825: "Augustus Le Plongeon (1825–1908) was a photographer, antiquarian and amateur archaeologist. He studied the pre-Columbian ruins of America, particularly those of the Maya civilization on the northern Yucatán Peninsula. While his writings contain many eccentric notions that were discredited by later researchers, Le Plongeon left a lasting legacy in his photographs documenting the ancient ruins. He should also be regarded as one of the earliest proponents of Mayanism. Le Plongeon has been identified as an early practitioner of psychic archaeology and his wife Alice Dixon Le Plongeon had an avid interest in mesmerism, séance, and the occult.[1] Professional archaeologists regard Le Plongeon as an obvious crank.[2][1]. [NP] Le Plongeon wrote a lengthy history of Maya culture, going so far as to propose a theory that Maya had been in touch with the lost continent of Atlantis and were ancestral to Ancient Egypt, a theory which has since been discredited by the scientific community. Le Plongeon, a Freemason, was also convinced that the roots of Freemasonry were to be found in the ancient Maya culture. In general, his theories were considered to be somewhat outlandish by near-contemporaries and later Mayanist scholars such as Désiré Charnay, Teoberto Maler and Alfred Maudslay, and he is regarded today as one of the more eccentric characters to have worked in the field.[3] However, as a pioneer in producing photographic records of Maya sites and inscriptions, Le Plongeon's works and images retain at least a curio value to later researchers and in several cases preserve the appearance of sites and objects that were subsequently damaged. [....] A collection of the works of the Le Plongeons currently resides at the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles. The archive contains original records covering their travels from the 1860s through the early 1900s, including diaries, unpublished scholarly manuscripts and notes, correspondence, and extensive photographic documentation of ancient architecture and sculpture, city views, and ethnographic studies. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_LePlongeon]

1828 - Brahmo Sabha - August 20th, 1828: "On 20 August 1828 the first assembly of the Brahmo Sabha (progenitor of the Brahmo Samaj) was held at the North Calcutta house of Feringhee Kamal Bose. This day is celebrated by Brahmos as Bhadrotsab (... Bhadrotshôb 'Bhadro celebration'). '*[This Sabha was convened at Calcutta by religious reformer Raja Rammohun Roy for his family and friends settled there. The Sabha regularly gathered on Saturday between seven o'clock to nine o'clock. These were informal meetings of Bengali Brahmins (the "twice born"), accompanied by Upanishadic recitations in Sanskrit followed by Bengali translations of the Sanskrit recitation and singing of Brahmo hymns composed by Rammohun.']*' These meetings were open to all Brahmins and there was no formal organisation or theology as such.[9][10] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmo_Samaj]

*Trivia: "[....] Is not Raja Ram Mohan Roy the Brahmo Samaj founder? 1. Ram Mohan Roy started the Brahma Sabha (Association of Brahmins) along with Dwarkanath Tagore in 1828. The objectives of this association were to publicize the true Vedanta which had been corrupted by Buddhist and Brahmanical influences. The Sabha met every Wednesday at Kamal Basu’s house in Chitpur and later moved to their own premises at Chitpur Road in 1830 (purchased by the munificence Dwarkanath Tagore) . After the death of Ram Mohan Roy in 1833, the Sabha became moribund. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmo_Samaj]

1828 - Birth / Shri Shyamacharan Lahiri Mahasaya -

Shri Shyamacharan Lahiri Mahasaya (1828-1895) [NP] Known as a Yogavatar ("Incarnation of Yoga"), Lahiri Mahasaya ["Great Soul"] was a supervisor, married with children, working for the construction department of the Railway Company in Varanasi. One day in 1861 his office sent him by "mistake" (in fact a transfer brought about by the mystical power of Babaji himself) to the Ranikhet mountains, where Babaji appeared to him and initiated him into Kriya Yoga, and gave him the mission to spread it to the world. [....] Among Lahiri Mahasaya's many direct disciples are: Shri Balananda Brahamchari, Pandit Panchan Bhattacharya, Swami Pranabananda Giri, Ram Gopal, Brahmachari Keshavananda Avadhut, Shastri Mahasaya, Shri Tinkori Lahiri (his own son), Swami Shriyukteshwar Giri, and Shrimat Bhupendranath Sanyal. [....]

[Based on: http://www.hariharananda.org/english/who_we_are/kriya/kriya_linage.htm] - [T.D. - 01/15/07]

*Trivia: "[....] He freely gave Kriya initiation to those of every faith, including Hindus, Moslems, and Christians, at a time when caste bigotry was very strong. He encouraged his students to adhere to the tenets of their own faith, adding the Kriya techniques to what they already were practicing. (1) [....] The Guru-Disciple relationship: Lahiri often spoke of the Guru-Disciple relationship in the context of Kriya Yoga. He always gave the Kriya technique as an initiation,[1] and taught that the technique was only properly learned as part of the Guru-Disciple relationship.[1] [3] Frequently he referred to the realization that comes through practicing Kriya as taught by the Guru, and the grace that comes through the 'transmission' of the Guru.[5] He also taught that the grace of the Guru comes automatically if his instructions are followed.[3] He suggested contacting the Guru during meditation, counseling that it wasn't always necessary to see his physical form. [3] [NP] Regarding the necessity of the help of a Guru to deep yoga practice, he said: 'It is absolutely necessary for all devotees to totally surrender to their Guru. The more one can surrender to the Guru, the more he can ascertain the subtlest of the subtle techniques of yoga from his Guru. Without surrender, nothing can be derived from the Guru.' [3] [NP] The relationship Lahiri Mahasaya had with his own disciples was very individual. He even taught the Kriya Yoga practice slightly differently to each, depending on the spiritual needs of the individual disciple. [6] [....]" (1) Yogananda, Paramahansa, Autobiography of a Yogi, 2005. ISBN 978-1565892125.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lahiri_Mahasaya] - [T.D. - 08/07/08]

1829 - Birth / Rai Saligram Bahadur - March 14th, 1829:

Rai Saligram Bahadur, popularly known as Maharaj, was born in a kayastha family of Peepal Mandi, Agra, on 14 March 1829. His father, Bahadur Singh, a lawyer of repute, was a highly religious and generous man. He died early leaving behind his widow, two sons and a daughter. At that time, Rai Saligram was only four years old. His mother, a talented lady, had therefore to struggle hard against heavy odds to provide her sons with the best possible education.

Throughout his academic career, Rai Saligram was a brilliant student. After completing his primary education in a maktab [Urdu school], he went to Agra College for higher studies. He passed the Senior Cambridge examination from this college in 1847 with distinction in Theology, English, Mathematics and Urdu. Subsequently he devoted himself to higher studies in Persian and Arabic. He also studied advanced books on religion, philosophy and astrology. He took great interest in learning Hindi and Sanskrit and within a short time acquired high proficiency in these languages. His ever-increasing thirst for knowledge knew no bounds. [....]

When in 1878, Soamiji departed for his heavenly abode, Rai Saligram Bahadur succeeded him as the guru and inaugurated an era of consolidation in the history of Radhasoami Satsang. After his retirement from official duties, he finally settled at Agra and devoted his entire time to religious duties. For twenty years (1878-1898) he served humanity at large and spread the divine light of love which he had received from his master. He took very little food and slept less than four hours a day. Excessive work weakened him physically. He left for his heavenly abode on 6 December 1898 after a brief illness. Thousands of his followers rushed to Agra for his last darshan and paid homage to their benevolent guru. His samadhi was built by his son Rai Ajudhya Prasad at the very place where satsang was held. Paying a tribute to him, the Indian Mirror observed : " The death of Rai Saligram Saheb Bahadur of Agra will be sincerely regretted by the people of the North-west Provinces. The deceased gentleman occupied a high position in the Postal Department and enjoyed the confidence and respect of both the Government and the public. But we notice Rai Saligram death not so much because of his official position as because of the hold he had over the hearts of his countrymen. Indian official, who are in anyway in the service are apt to become some time denationalised. Rai Saligram, on the contrary, was a Hindu of Hindus, and the leader of a recognized Hindu association. He was a very charitable man, and his death is a distinct loss to the community." [....]

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-15.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

*Links: http://www.radhasoami-faith.info/Huzur_Maharaj.shtml

*Trivia: "[....] According to Huzur Maharaj, the second guru, 'Radhasoami faith is not built on the basis of scriptures appertaining to Hindu or any other religion.' Nevertheless it cannot be denied that it inherited much from the hoary past of Hindu thought and philosphy.  [NP] The faith, in fact, came as a bold reaction against prevalent traditionalism and ritualism of the eighteenth century religion. Its object was the propagation of a simple religion to assure the spiritual uplift of the people without any distinction of cast, colour or nationality. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/9563/chapter2.html] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

1831 - Birth / "Helena Blavatsky" - August 12th, 1831: "Elena Petrovna Gan (Russian: ..., also Hélène, 12 August [O.S. 31 July] 1831, Yekaterinoslav, Yekaterinoslav, Russian Empire (today Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine) — May 8, 1891, London), better known as Helena Blavatsky (Russian: ...) or Madame Blavatsky, born Helena von Hahn, was a founder of Theosophy and the Theosophical Society. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Blavatsky]

1832 - Birth / Henry S. Olcott - August 2nd, 1932: "Colonel Henry Steel Olcott (August 2, 1832 – February 17, 1907) was an American military officer, journalist, lawyer and the co-founder and first President of the Theosophical Society. [NP] Olcott was the first well-known person of European ancestry to make a formal conversion to Buddhism. His subsequent actions as president of the Theosophical Society helped create a renaissance in the study of Buddhism. Olcott is considered a Buddhist modernist for his efforts in interpreting Buddhism through a Westernized lens. [NP] Olcott was a major revivalist of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and he is still honored in Sri Lanka for these efforts. Olcott has been called by Sri Lankans "one of the heroes in the struggle of our independence and a pioneer of the present religious, national and cultural revival." More ardent admirers have claimed that Olcott was a Bodhisattva.[....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Steel_Olcott]

1836 - Birth / Ramakrishna - 1836: "RAMAKRISHNA (1836-86)—The sage-priest of the goddess-Mother Kali at Dakshineswar, near Calcutta. By his constant devotion, he made the Divine Mother manifest to himself. Next, he plunged into the yoga of meditation in every way conceivable and realised the Absolute Brahma, the attributeless Allah and Christ the Master-yogi, establishing the synthetic value of all religions which is his greatest contribution to the spirit of his age, for he virtually laid the foundation for a living Harmony of Religions and a common Fellowship of Faiths."  

[Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm] 

1838 - Studying Mesmerism / Phineas P. Quimby - "[....] In 1838, Quimby [Phineas Parkhurst Quimby] began studying Mesmerism after attending a lecture by Doctor Collyer and soon began further experimentation with the help of Lucius Burkmar, who could fall into a trance and diagnose illnesses. Quimby again saw the mental and placebo effect of the mind over the body when medicines prescribed by Burkmar, with no physical value, cured patients of diseases. From the conclusions of these studies, Phineas Quimby developed theories of mentally aided healing and opened an office in Portland, Maine in 1859. Among the students and patients who joined his studies and helped him to commit his teachings to writing were Warren Felt Evans, Annetta Seabury Dresser and Julious Dresser, the founders of New Thought as a named movement, and Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of the Christian Science movement. [....]"

[Based on: http://phineasquimby.wwwhubs.com/]

1839 - Guru Jaimal Singh - "JAIMAL SINGH (1839—1903 A.D.)—A soldier-saint initiated into the sacred teachings of Surat Shabd Yoga by Soami Ji Maharai of Agra, who deputed Him to carry on His Mission in the Punjab so as to repay, in some measure, the debt the world owed to Guru Nanak who came from the Punjab and whose teachings had imbibed and influenced Soami Jo Maharaj. Baba Jaimal Singh Ji in his turn, left his spiritual mantle on Hazur Baba awan [Typo? Should be Sawan?] Singh Ji. " [Brackets text added for clarity - D.R.D.] - 1838? [Based on: http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm]

http://groups.google.com/group/alt.consciousness.mysticism/browse_thread/thread/4e47439f360344bc

1840 - Birth / Alfred Percy Sinnett - January 18th, 1840: "A.P. Sinnett (18 January 1840 - 26 June 1921) was an author and Theosophist. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Percy_Sinnett]

1840 - Trivia / The Oberlin Evangelist - February 12th, 1840: "The Oberlin Evangelist - Professor Finney's Letters - No. 9. / TO MINISTERS OF THE GOSPEL OF ALL DENOMINATIONS [see link]

*Link: http://www.gospeltruth.net/1840OE/40%20lets_art/400212_ministers_1.htm

1842 - Death / Tulsi Sahib - "When Tulsi Sahib was born is not indicated in Surat Vilas; however, it is written that he left his body approximately at the age of eighty years in Jayth Sudi-2 in Vikrami Samvat 1899 or 1900. (according to English system in the year 1842 or 1843). This indicates that he was born in 1820 according to the Indian calendar (which is the year 1763 by the English system). His grave is present in Hath Ras where many people visit, and a big fair is held once a year. [....]"

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-13.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]

1843 - Babi movement - "[...] The emergence of the Bab and the Babi movement happened once the Shaykhi movement's structure and unity had collapsed in 1843/44. [....]"

[Based on: http://bss.sfsu.edu/behrooz/Page-Hist-Qajar-ulama.htm]

*Trivia: "In Twelver Shi'a Islamic belief there were twelve Imams, the last of which, known as Imam Mahdi, who communicated with his followers only through certain representatives.[43] According to the Twelver's belief, after the last of these representatives died, the Imam Mahdi went into a state of Occultation; while still alive, he was no longer accessible to his believers.[43] Shi'a Muslims believe that when the world becomes oppressed, the Imam Mahdi (also termed the Qa'im) will come out of occultation and restore true religion on Earth before the cataclysmic end of the world and judgement day.[43][44] [NP] In Bábí belief the Báb is the return of the Imam Mahdi, but the doctrine of the Occultation is implicitly denied; instead the Báb stated that his manifestation was a symbolic return of the Imam, and not the physical reappearance of the Imam Mahdi who had died a thousand years earlier.[43] In Bábí belief the statements made from previous revelations regarding the Imam Mahdi were set forth in symbols.[43] The Báb also stated that he was not only the fulfillment of the Shi`i expectations for the Qá'im, but that he also was the beginning of a new prophetic dispensation.[44] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babism#Hidden_Imam]

1845 - U.S. President James K. Polk / U.S.A. - March 4th, 1845: "James Knox Polk (pronounced /po?k/; November 2, 1795–June 15, 1849) was the eleventh President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_K._Polk] - [T.D. - 12/13/08]

1845 - Eck Master Juquila? - "Juquila, the ECK Master of the Ancient Order of Vairagi ...." [Based on: The Drums of ECK, by Paul Twitchell, Copyright 1970, Fourth Printing 1978, p. 218 (See also: pp. 26, 29, 61 & 73)

1846 - Peddar Zaskq / Mexico? - 1846-1848: "The narrative which is laid down in this book, The Drums of ECK, may appear to the reader to be fiction but it is a true story. It is taken from my personal memories of what happened during the stirring times of the American-Mexican War which was fought in the years principally on the soil of old Mexico." [Based on: The Drums of ECK (Copyright 1970), by Paul Twitchell. Fourth Printing 1978, p. 5]

*Trivia: "[....] This story is about the times I spent in Mexico during the years when James K. Polk, 11th President of the United States, was enchanted with its expansion - known to history as the Manifest Destiny. [....]" [Based on: The Drums of ECK, by Paul Twitchell, Copyright 1970, Fourth Printing 1978, p. 5]

*Trivia: "R.T.: 'You can stand more of the cosmic vibrations than most people. You hold your strength and vibration within your aura. That is the secret of love. You learned that a long time ago, in your past life. I taught you that a long time ago. Remember? About one hundred years ago [1856?] in Tibet.' " [Based on: Dialogues with the Master (Copyright 1970), by Paul Twitchell. Ninth printing, 1987, p. 17]

1847 - Born / Thomas Troward - 1847: "Thomas Troward (1847-1916) was an English author whose works influenced the New Thought Movement and mystic Christianity. [NP] Troward was a divisional Judge in British-administered India. His avocation was the study of comparative religion. Influences on his thinking, as well as his later writing, included the teachings of Christ, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism.[1] [NP] After his retirement from the judiciary in 1896, Troward set out to apply logic and a judicial weighing of evidence in the study of matters of cause and effect.[1] The philosopher William James characterized Troward’s Edinburgh Lectures on Mental Science as "far and away the ablest statement of philosophy I have met, beautiful in its sustained clearness of thought and style, a really classic statement."[2] [NP] According to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) archivist Nell Wing, early AA members were strongly encouraged to read Thomas Troward's Edinburgh Lectures on Mental Science.[3] In the opening of the 2006 film The Secret (2006 film), introductory remarks credit Troward's philosophy with inspiring the movie and its production. [4] *Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Troward - [T.D. - 07/05/10]

1847 - Birth / Annie Clapham - October 1st, 1847: "Annie Besant (pronounced /?b?s?nt/; née Wood; Clapham, London 1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933 in Adyar, India) was a prominent Theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self rule. [....] Annie became involved with Union organisers including the Bloody Sunday demonstration and the London matchgirls strike of 1888 and a leading speaker for the Fabian Society and the (Marxist) Social Democratic Federation and was elected to the London School Board for Tower Hamlets, topping the poll even though few women were qualified to vote at that time. [NP] In 1890 Annie Besant met Helena Blavatsky and over the next few years her interest in Theosophy grew and her interest in left wing politics waned. She travelled to India and in 1898 helped establish the Central Hindu College in India. [NP] In 1902 she established the International Order of Co-Freemasonry in England and over the next few years established lodges in many parts of the British Empire. [NP] In 1908 Annie Besant became President of the Theosophical Society and began to steer the society away from Buddhism and towards Hinduism. She also became involved in politics in India, joining the Indian National Congress. When war broke out in Europe in 1914 she helped launch the Home Rule League to campaign for democracy in India and dominion status within the Empire which culminated in her election as president of the India National Congress in late 1917. After the war she continued to campaign for Indian independence until her death in 1933. [....] She first met clairvoyant theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater in London in April 1894. They became close co-workers in the theosophical movement and would remain so for the rest of their lives. Besant became clairvoyant in the following year. In a letter dated 25 August 1895 to Francisca Arundale, Leadbeater narrates how Besant became clairvoyant.[6] Together they would investigate the universe, matter, thought-forms and the history of mankind through clairvoyance, and would go on to co-author several books. [....] As early as 1889, Blavatsky had told a group of Theosophical students that the real purpose of establishing the Society was to prepare humanity for the reception of the World Teacher when he appeared again on earth.[9] This was repeated again more publicly by Besant in 1896, five years after Blavatsky's death.[10][11] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annie_Besant]

1848 - Spiritualism / Upstate New York - March 31st, 1848: "[....] Spiritualism first appeared in the 1840s in the 'Burned-over District' of upstate New York, where earlier religious movements such as Millerism, and Mormonism had emerged during the Second Great Awakening. [NP] This region of New York State was an environment in which many thought direct communication with God or angels was possible, and that God would not behave harshly - for example, that God would not condemn unbaptised infants to an eternity in Hell.[1] [....] Spiritualists often set March 31, 1848, as the beginning of their movement. On that date, Kate and Margaret Fox, of Hydesville, New York, reported that they had made contact with the spirit of a murdered peddler. What made this an extraordinary event was that the spirit communicated through rapping noises, audible to onlookers. The evidence of the senses appealed to practically minded Americans, and the Fox sisters became a sensation.[1][2] [NP] Amy and Isaac Post, Hicksite Quakers from Rochester, New York, had long been acquainted with the Fox family, and took the two girls into their home in the late spring of 1848. Immediately convinced of the genuineness of the sisters' communications, they became early converts and introduced the young mediums to their circle of radical Quaker friends. [NP] It therefore came about that many of the early participants in Spiritualism were radical Quakers and others involved in the reforming movement of the mid-nineteenth century. These reformers were uncomfortable with established churches, because they did little to fight slavery and even less to advance the cause of women's rights.[2] [....] After the 1920s, Spiritualism evolved in three different directions, all of which exist today. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiritualism_%28religious_movement%29]

1848 - Travels Abroad / Helena P. Blavatsky - 1848-1858: "[....] According to her own story as told to a later biographer, she [Helena P. Blavatsky] spent the years 1848 to 1858 traveling the world. She visited Egypt, France, Canada (Quebec), England, South America, Germany, Mexico, India, Greece and especially Tibet, where she studied for two years with the ascetics, to whom she referred as Brothers. She was initiated for theosophical work while in Tibet.[3] She returned to Russia in 1858 and went first to see her sister Vera, a young widow living in Rugodevo, a village left to her by her husband. [....]"

[....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Petrovna_Blavatsky]

1850 - Trivia / man yozheroh Allah - July 9th, 1850: "[...] Violence broke out between the Babis and the Qajar government in the second half of 1848, and Baha-?-Allah and several companions, including his half-brother Yahya- (then aged 17 or 18), set out from Nur to help the besieged Babis at Šayk_ Tabarsi- near Babol, Mazandara-n, in early December, 1848, but they were arrested and imprisoned in Amol (Noqt.at al-ka-f, pp. 242-43; Zarandi-, Matale?, tr. pp. 368-77, 461-62, 583-84; Mirza- Hosayn Hamadani-, Tarik_-ejadid, ms., Cambridge University Library, Browne Or. F. 55/9, tr. E. G. Browne, The New History of Mi-rza- ?Ali- Muhammed, the Bab, Cambridge, 1893; repr. Amsterdam, 1975, pp. 64-65). The following three years witnessed a series of disasters for the Babis, whom government troops besieged and then massacred in Mazandaran, Nayriz, and Zanjan. On 9 July 1850 the government had the Bab executed, but only after he had declared himself an independent manifestation of God (maz.har-e ela-hi-) and had written a book of laws, the Baya-n-e fa-rsi- for the new religion he founded. [NP] The Bab had been in correspondence with the Nuri- brothers from his prison, and after the death of many prominent disciples in 1848-50, they emerged as the most likely leaders. Baha-?-Allah, then aged thirty-three and a well-known notable, might have been expected to become the leading Babi. But surprisingly, the Bab appears to have indicated for Mirza- Yahya- Sobhe Azal (then around nineteen) a high station or leadership position, at least nominally, in Babism. The young Azal, however, seems to have possessed little widespread authority or legitimacy, and the 1850s saw the Babi community splinter into a number a regional sects headed by various claimants to theophanic status. The Bab’s works emphasized that another messianic figure, “He whom God shall make manifest (man yoz.heroh Alla-h)” would appear. More important, the disheartened Babis seem to have been looking for charismatic leaders to replace the Bab. Azal at first refused to denounce these rivals outright, rather incorporating them into a “theophanic field” with himself at the apex. Later in the 1850s Azal became more intolerant of rivals. Baha-?-Alla-h, on the other hand, attempted to deflate Babi “manifestations” (zohurat) even in early 1851, asserting his own high station. He snubbed the Babi disciple Sayyed Basire Hendi- of Multan when he came to visit Nur, because the Indian made grandiose claims. Finally, Baha-?-Allah “took pity on him and manifested upon that temple of servitude, [Sayyed Basir] the effulgences of divinity, [tajalliyate robubiyat] from that glory of paradise (Baha-? al-rezwan, [i.e., Baha-?-Alla-h]).” (Noqt.at al-ka-f, p. 258; see also pp. 238-61 ). [... .]

[Based on: http://bahai-library.com/cole_iranica_bahaullah]

*Related Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bah%C3%A1%27%C3%AD_Faith
                            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manifestations_of_God

1851 - Master Morya - 1851: "[....] 'Madame Blavatsky was a creature of destiny and, as the steel is drawn to the lodestone, so the Russian mystic was impelled by fate into the way prepared for her. "In London, by the Serpentine," wrote Madame Blavatsky in her diary, "I met the Master of my dreams." Concerning the Rajput Adept very little information is available. Although known to Madame Blavatsky as the Master Morya, he seems to have also used the name Ahazhulama, or the Blue Teacher; and according to the conservative records of that day, was 125 years of age at the time of this visit to England. The portrait of Mahatma Morya…was painted [by Schmiechen] under the direction of Madame Blavatsky, who seems to have been satisfied with the accuracy of the likeness. The Master visited Paris in the latter part of the nineteenth century and was also in America for a short time. He traveled, however, in great secrecy, accompanied by Oriental attendants, and met but a few people.' [2] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morya_%28Theosophy%29]

1851 - Birth / James Churchward - February 27th, 1851: "James Churchward (February 27, 1851-January 4, 1936) is best known as a British born occult writer. However, he was also a patented inventor, engineer, and expert fisherman. [NP] He was the elder brother of the Masonic author Albert Churchward (1852–1925.) He was a tea planter in Sri Lanka before coming to the US in the 1890s. In James' biography entitled My Friend Churchey and His Sunken Continent, he discussed Mu with Augustus LePlongeon and his wife in the 1890s. He patented NCV Steel, armor plating to protect ships during World War I, and other steel alloys. After a patent-infringement settlement in 1914, James retired to his 7+ acre estate on Lake Wononskopomuc in Lakeville, Connecticut, to answer the questions from his Pacific travels. In 1926, at the age of 75, he published The Lost Continent of Mu: Motherland of Man, which he claimed proved the existence of a lost continent, called Mu, in the Pacific Ocean. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Churchward]

1851 - Birth / William Q. Judge - April 13th, 1851: "William Quan Judge (April 13, 1851 – March 21, 1896) was a mystic, esotericist, and occultist, and one of the founders of the original Theosophical Society. He was born in Dublin, Ireland. When he was 13 years old, his family emigrated to the United States. He became a naturalized citizen of the USA at age 21 and passed the New York state bar exam, specializing in commercial law. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Quan_Judge]

(?) A.D. - Eck Master Yu Rangta? - "During the middle and later part of the nineteenth century Yu Rangta, a Chinese Master, lived in the Gobi Desert and was the living ECK Master of his times." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 195]

1854 - Birth / Charles Webster Leadbeater - February 16th, 1854: "Charles Webster Leadbeater (16 February 1854 – 1 March 1934) was a prominent early member of the Theosophical Society, author on the occult and co-founder with J. I. Wedgwood of the Liberal Catholic Church. Originally a clergyman in the Church of England, his interest in spiritualism led him to give up the Church in favour of the Theosophical Society, where he became a protege of Annie Besant. He quickly rose to the upper echelons of that society, but resigned abruptly in 1906 in the midst of accusations that he had been engaging in mutual masturbation with teenage boys left in his care. With Besant's support he was readmitted a few years later, and although similar rumours were to follow him throughout his career, Leadbeater's talents as a prolific author on occult subjects kept him at the forefront of the Theosophical Movement until his death in 1934. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Webster_Leadbeater]

1855 - Birth / Swami Shriyukteshwar Giri - May 10th, 1855:

Swami Shriyukteshwar Giri (1855-1936) [NP] This great Jñanavatar ("Incarnation of Knowledge") was originally a householder named Priyanath Karar. He later renounced the world and became known as Swami Shriyukteshwarji. He was one of the foremost disciples of Lahiri Mahasaya, and was vastly learned in astronomy, astrology and mathematics. [....]

[Based on: http://www.hariharananda.org/english/who_we_are/kriya/kriya_linage.htm] - [T.D. - 01/15/07]

*Trivia: "Sri Yukteswar Giri (also spelled Sriyukteswar Giri and Sriyukteshvar Giri) (May 10, 1855-March 9, 1936) is the monastic name of Priyanath Karar (also Preonath Karar), the guru of Paramahansa Yogananda. Sri Yukteswar was a Jyotisha (traditional astrologer), a yogi, and an exponent of the Bhagavad Gita and the Bible. He was a disciple of Lahiri Mahasaya of Varanasi and a member of the Giri branch of the swami order. Yogananda styled Sri Yukteswar Jnanavatar, or "Incarnation of Wisdom".[1] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Yukteswar_Giri] - [T.D. - 10/19/08]

1857 - Indian Rebellion - May 10th, 1857: "[....] The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region.[3] The rebellion posed a considerable threat to Company power in that region,[4] and it was contained only with the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858.[3] The rebellion is also known as India's First War of Independence, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Sepoy Rebellion, and the Sepoy Mutiny. [....] The rebellion led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858, and forced the British to reorganize the army, the financial system, and the administration in India.[8] India was thereafter directly governed by the Crown in the new British Raj.[5] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Rebellion_of_1857]

1858 - British Raj / India - "British Raj 1858–1947"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India]

1858 - Birth / Sawan Singh - July 27th, 1858: "[....] Hazur Baba Sawan Singh Ji was born 27 July 1858 in village Jatala, Dist. Ludhiana to Sub. Maj. Kabul Singh and Mata Jiwani. Had 3 children by Mata Kishan Kaur Ji. He passed Engineering from Thomason College, Roorkee and joined the Military Engineering Service. His bearing was majestic and attractive. He studied scriptures of various religions. He visited Baba Kahan of Peshawar, who told him his Master will seek him on his own. Stationed at Murree, he met Baba Jaimal Singh ji, who had come for him and was initiated by him. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baba_Sawan_Singh]
*Links:  http://sawansingh.org/english/index.html
              http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm
              http://groups.google.com/group/alt.religion.eckankar/browse_thread/thread/0560ea865304b67e#

*Trivia: "[...] The Master (Hazur Baba Sawan Singh Ji Maharaj) was married in early life but his wife died even before gauna. (Marriage consummation ceremony) He was married again after completion of 25 years of Brahmcharya. (Celibacy) This time he married Shrimati Kishan Kaur and got three children—one of whom died in the prime of youth, while the other two Sardar Bachint Singh and Sardar Harbans Singh are still alive. (Since died) [....]" [Based on: http://ruhanisatsangusa.org/BabaSawanSingh.htm]

*Trivia: "[....] In fact, except for Maharaj Charan Singh, the Satguru at Beas from 1951 to 1990, Sawan Singh attracted the largest following of any shabd yoga master in history, initiating more than 125,000 people into the mystic practice. [....]" [Based on: http://vclass.mtsac.edu:930/phil/saint.htm]

*Trivia: "[....] Patti told me that she thought there were more references to Sawan Singh than Kirpal Singh. She said that she never felt that Kirpal Singh was Sudar Singh, but she did wonder if Sawan Singh was. And there were indeed a lot of early students of Paul's who wondered the same thing. That might have been what influenced Patti as well. Remember, Dr. Bluth was a follower of Sawan Singh, and by the time Patti joined Eckankar there was already friction with Kirpal's followers. I remember Sawan Singh's name being mentioned a number of times in very positive ways in the early days, but only occasional references to Kirpal because Paul had once studied with him. Also, Paul does actually mention Sawan Singh in one of his talks from 1966, and indicates the line of mastership ended with him, meaning that he thought highly of Sawan Singh. But I'll ask Patti again to see what she remembers. Doug." [Based on A.R.E. post 02/16/10]

*Link: http://groups.google.com/group/alt.religion.eckankar/msg/979d0e85e46e3024

*Trivia:

Hazur Baba Sawan Singh JI Maharaj (1858 - 1948) showed a keen interest in spirituality from an early age and searched for a spiritual teacher to guide him. His search led him to Baba Jaimal Singh Ji Maharaj [(1838-1903), an initiate and spiritual successor of Swami Shiv Dayal Singh Ji (1818 - 1878) of Agra] in 1894, who opened up the inner science to him. Hazur Baba Sawan Singh Ji devotedly applied himself to meditation and the spiritual values of life, and after nine years of discipleship was chosen to carry on the spiritual work in 1903 after Baba Jaimal Singh Ji left the physical world.

Hazur was a great reformer of unique importance. He was a Pole star to the entire humanity and always befriended those in trouble and tribulation. With the water of Truth, Brother-hood and Equality, He with His own hands washed clean and malice and ill will from the hearts of the people drenched through and through in the poison of materialism. He made each one drink the godly wine to his fill and always laid stress on an honest livelihood. He Himself depended for His maintenance on His own pension and never accepted any gifts or presents from anyone -- not even from His disciples.

He revived the teachings of holy Saints and brought them into limelight. Like His predecessors - Guru Nanak, Kabir Sahib, Tulsi Sahib, Paltu Sahib, Soami Shiv Dayal Singh Ji, Maulana Rumi, Shams Tabrez and others, He pulled up the aspirants from their deep slumber and put them on the path of 'Surat Shabd Yoga' or 'Sultan-ul-Azkar' which is the most ancient and eternal path leading to Reality and which being natural is unchangeable from times immemorial and will ever remain as such without any modification whatever.

Hazur's teachings are esoteric and not exoteric. He taught -- God is in every heart. Spirituality is the common heritage of the entire world and humanity, and is not reserved for any particular country or nationality. The be-all and end-all of spirituality is the union of the soul with the Omnipotent Over-Soul. Man is the roof and crown of all creation and nothing else is greater than He. He is direct manifestation of God and is the marvel of God's greatness. In the twinkling of an eye he can rise to Heaven and can come back. The sun and the moon, paradise and hell, the earth and the sky are his playgrounds.

During Hazur's mission, these teachings gained widespread recognition as a natural way to achieve the spiritual goals of self-knowledge and God-realization. Over 125,000 people went to Hazur to learn this science. Those who visited him from the West carried his meditation practice back with them, and centers were established in the United States, Canada, and Europe.

Several books about Hazur Baba Sawan Singh Ji Maharaj became well known in the West and attracted many who were interested in learning meditation on the inner Light and Sound.  

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-17.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]
http://web.archive.org/web/20080619132354/http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-17.html

1861 - Trivia / Kriya Yoga? - "Throughout the history of creation, the divine teachings of Kriya Yoga were introduced and lost countless times, in accordance with the different cycles of human consciousness. [NP] The contemporary re-introduction of Kriya Yoga began in 1861 in a remote mountain cave in northern India, and has been since then transmitted through an unbroken lineage of realized masters."

[Based on: http://www.hariharananda.org/english/who_we_are/kriya/kriya_linage.htm] - [T.D. - 01/15/07]
[Other links: http://www.geocities.com/chelab4/]

*Trivia:

According to Yogananda, Kriya Yoga was well-known in ancient India, but was eventually lost, due to "priestly secrecy and man’s indifference." The story of Lahiri Mahasaya receiving initiation into Kriya Yoga by the immortal yogi Mahavatar Babaji in 1861 is recounted in Autobiography of a Yogi.[2] At that meeting, Yogananda wrote that Mahavatar Babaji told Lahiri Mahasaya, "The Kriya Yoga that I am giving to the world through you in this nineteenth century, is a revival of the same science that Krishna gave milleniums ago to Arjuna; and was later known to Patanjali and Christ."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kriya_Yoga] - [T.D. - 01/15/07]

*Trivia: "[....] Paramahansa Yogananda also revealed that it was Babaji who taught a powerful series of yogic techniques, know as "Kriya Yoga," to Lahiri Mahasaya, around 1861, and who subsequently initiated many others, including Yogananda`s own Christ-like guru, Sri Yukteswar, some thirty years later. Yogananda spent 10 years with his guru before Babaji himself appeared to him, and directed him to bring the sacred science of Kriya to the West. Yogananda fulfilled this sacred mission from 1920 to 1952, when he left his body and attained the yogic state of mahasamadhi.As a final tribute to the efficacy of Kriya Yoga and the blessings of his lineage, the body of Yogananda did not deteriorate during the 21 days it lay exposed, before being interred in a crypt in Los Angeles. March 7, 2002 marked the 50th anniversary of Yogananda's remarkable passing. When his remains were transferred to a permanent "samadhi" shrine in March 2002, millions around the world remembered with gratitude what Yogananda's legacy has given to them. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.babajiskriyayoga.net/english/about-babaji.htm] - [T.D. - 08/07/08]

*Trivia: "Legendary powers and age have been attributed to Mahavatar Babaji—by the disciples of Lahiri Mahasaya, and by additional unconfirmed stories told in modern times. These stories have led many to believe that Mahavatar Babaji is a legendary person, rather than a real sadhu that was seen by numerous witnesses from 1861-1935. [NP] Paramahansa Yogananda, in his Autobiography, described Mahavatar Babaji’s role on earth:

The Mahavatar is in constant communion with Christ; together they send out vibrations of redemption, and have planned the spiritual technique of salvation for this age. The work of these two fully-illumined masters–one with the body, and one without it–is to inspire the nations to forsake suicidal wars, race hatreds, religious sectarianism, and the boomerang-evils of materialism. Babaji is well aware of the trend of modern times, especially of the influence and complexities of Western civilization, and realizes the necessity of spreading the self-liberations of yoga equally in the West and in the East.

In addition, Babaji is reputed to be ageless, according to some accounts, and about 500 years old around the late 1800’s, according to Swami Pranabananda.[4] Yogananda reports that, according to the disciples of Lahiri Mahasaya, nobody knows Babaji’s age, family, place of birth, true name, or other details “dear to the annalist’s heart.”[2] [....] Mahavatar Babaji as Krishna Lahiri Mahasaya wrote in his diary that Mahavatar Babaji was Lord Krishna. [7] Two disciples of Paramahansa Yogananda report that he also stated Mahavatar Babaji was Krishna in a former lifetime.[10] [11] Yogananda also frequently prayed out loud to 'Babaji-Krishna.' [12] [....]"

[Based on: Articles (Legends about Mahavatar Babaji & Mahavatar Babaji as Krishna) @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahavatar_Babaji] - [T.D. - 08/07/08]

1861 - Offering Satsang / Shiv Dayal Singh - January 1861:

"Soamiji Maharaj Shiv Dayal Singh (1818–1878) (also known as Siva Dayal Sahib), the first Satguru of Radhasoami, was born August 25, 1818, into a khatri family, residing in Panni Gali, Agra, India. On the request of his disciple, Rai Saligram Bahadur, also known as Hazur Maharaj, he began offering satsang on Basant-Panchami day in January 1861. Around 1866, the satsang was named 'Radhasoami Satsang.' Soamiji Maharaj presided over the satsang meetings for seventeen years at Panni Gali and Soami Bagh in Agra until he died on June 15, 1878. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiv_Dayal_Singh]

*Trivia: "Shiv Dayal Singh (also known as Swami ji) was the first Satguru to start the teachings of Radha Soami faith. His actual name was Seth Shiv Dayal Singh ji. He was born on August 25, 1818 in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India on the Janmashtmi day. At the age of five, he was sent to school where he learnt Hindi, Urdu, Persian and Gurumukhi. He also acquired a working knowledge of Arabic and Sanskrit. His parents were the followers of Param Sant Tulsi Sahib from Hathras, India.[2] Sant Tulsi Sahib ji initiated him at the age of six. [3] [4] [....] He practiced Surat Shabd Yoga for 15 years and started satsang publicly on Vasant Panchami (a spring festival) in 1861. This schedule continued for 17 years. [NP] Swami ji named his philosophy 'Satnaam Anaami'. The movement became known as Radha Soami, Radha meaning 'Soul' and Soami meaning 'Lord', hence 'Lord of the Soul'. The yoga system taught by Swami Ji is known as Surat Shabd Yoga. [NP] Swami ji has described the secret of divine and true 'Naam'. [NP] He wrote Saar Vachan book in two parts named: [7] [8] [NP] *Saar Vachan Vartik (Saar Vachan in prose) *Saar Vachan Chhand Band (Saar Vachan in verse) [NP] Saar Vachan Vartik contain the discourses of Swami ji Maharaj, which he delivered in the satsang up to 1878. They cover important teachings of the faith. His poems in Saar Vachan Chhand Band are replete with emotional appeal - a successful blending of popular poetic expressions from different languages of north India such as, Khari-Boli, Awadhi, Brijbhasha, Rajasthani and Gurumukhi. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiv_Dayal_Singh] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

*Trivia: "The Sar Bachan Radhasoami Poetry is a most other-worldly, heavenly document, based upon Swami Ji's own inner travels, attainments and spiritual realizations. 'For about fifteen years, Soami Ji Maharaj used to shut Himself up in a room which was within another room [a meditation room within a room of his home in Agra]. He was all the time absorbed in the bliss of Divine Light and Sound meditation.' (Huzur Maharaj) After this period of deep exploration of the inner regions and union with his Beloved Radhasoami in Sach Khand, Swami Ji emerged and began his Mission of public satsang and teaching. 'In January 1861, Soami Ji started publicly explaining the methods of the Saints to a few people who gathered at his home. This satsang (true association, association with Eternal Truth) continued for nearly seventeen years, during which period about four thousand persons - men and women -- Hindus, Muslims, Jains, Sravagis, and a few Christians were initiated by him into the Path of the Saints, i.e. Radhasoami path (the Path of the Supreme Being). Most of these were householders; but some (about three hundred) were Sadhus [monks] also.' (Encyclopaedia of Saints of India, Volume Nineteen: Radhasoami, Criterion Publications, New Delhi) [....]"

[Based in: http://www.care2.com/c2c/share/detail/464036] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

1861 - Birth / Rudolph Steiner - February 1861: "Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner[1] (25 or 27 February 1861[2] in Donji Kraljevec, then Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire – 30 March 1925 in Dornach, Switzerland) was an Austrian philosopher, social thinker, architect, and esotericist.[3][4] He gained initial recognition as a literary critic and cultural philosopher. At the beginning of the 20th century, he founded a spiritual movement, Anthroposophy, as an esoteric philosophy growing out of European transcendentalism and with links to Theosophy. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_Steiner]

1861 - Birth / Babuji Maharaj - June 19th, 1861: "[....] Babuji Maharaj was the last of the Nij Anshas who came in the time of Soamiji Maharaj. His life on earth coincided practically with the growth of Radhasoami Satsang established in 1861, the year of his birth. His association with the Satsang was the longest of all. So with His departure at the ripe age of 88, closed the biggest chapter in the history of Radhasoami Satsang. [....] In the early hours of the 12th day of the bright half of the month of Jeth, in the year 1918 of the Vikram Calendar, (Wednesday, the 19th June 1861), Babuji Maharaj was born as a grandson to the elder sister of Soamiji Maharaj, at Varanasi (Benares). [....] Babuji Maharaj's name was Madhav Prasad Sinha but, out of love and affection he was called "Raja" (King). [....]"

[Based on: http://www.radhasoami-faith.info/Babuji_Maharaj.shtml] - [T.D. - 01/25/10]

1861 - Birth / Sankar Misra - March 28th, 1861: "Pandit Brahm Sankar Misra known as Maharaj Saheb, the third Guru in the parent line of the succession was born on March 28, 1861, in a respectable Brahmin family of Varanasi.

[Based on: http://www.radhasoami-faith.info/Maharaj_Saheb.shtml] - [T.D. - 01/25/10]

1861 - Birth / "Swami Premananda" - December 10th, 1861: "The name 'Swami Premananda' given to Baburam by Swami Vivekananda at the time of accepting the monastic orders, was a true reflection of his basic trait universal love. Born to affluent parents on December 10, 1861, Baburam completed his early schooling in his village of Antpur (Bengal), came to Calcutta for higher education and joined the Metropolitan Institution. There he had the privilege of having Sri `M' ( Mahendranath Gupta ), the celebrated author of The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna as his Headmaster and Rakhal ( Swami Brahmananda) as his class-mate. It was the latter who was instrumental in taking Baburam to Sri Ramakrishna. Sri Ramakrishna examined Baburam's features in his own, rather queer, way and was satisfied about his high spiritual potentialities. Increased contacts with Sri Ramakrishna intensified Baburam's inherent spiritual thirst which had been manifesting itself even from his childhood. After the passing away of Sri Ramakrishna, Baburam, along with his brother-disciples like Narendranath ( Swami Vivekananda ) and Rakhal embrace the monastic life, becoming `Swami Premananda.' He spent most of his life in the monasteries at Baranagore, Alambazar and Belur taking care of worship, internal management and training of the new monastic recruits. [....] The deadly disease of Kala Azar took him on the 30th July 1918. [....]"

[Based on: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/1863/prem.html] - [T.D. - 01/07/07]

1863 - Birth / "Swami Vivekananda" - January 12th, 1863: "Swami Vivekananda (... Shami Bibekanondo), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta (... Nôrendronath Dotto, and who was also known as Swami Vividishananda) and was affectionately known to some as Naren (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902) was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga. He was the chief disciple of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and was the founder of Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission. Many consider him an icon for his fearless courage, his positive exhortations to the youth, his broad outlook on social problems, and countless lectures and discourses on Vedanta philosophy. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swami_Vivekananda] - [T.D. - 01/07/07]

*Links: http://www.strippingthegurus.com/stgsamplechapters/vivekananda.asp
             http://www.ramakrishnavivekananda.info/ [good link]

1871 - Birth / Walter Russell - May 19th, 1871: "Walter Bowman Russell (May 19, 1871 – May 19, 1963) was an American artist and mystic known[1] for his achievements as a painter, sculptor, author and builder and less well known as a natural philosopher and for his unified theory in physics and cosmogony.[2][3] He posited that the universe was founded on a unifying principle of rhythmic balanced interchange. This physical theory, laid out primarily in his books The Secret of Light (1947) and The Message of the Divine Iliad (1948–49), has not been accepted by mainstream scientists.[4] Russell asserted that this was mainly due to a difference in the assumptions made about the existence of mind and matter; Russell assumes the existence of mind as cause while he believes that scientists in general assume the existence of mind as effect.[5] Russell was also proficient in philosophy, music, ice skating, and was a professor at the institution he founded, the University of Science and Philosophy. He believed mediocrity is self-inflicted and genius is self-bestowed.[6] The content of his public lectures and his writing about living philosophy place him firmly in the New Thought Movement, [7] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Russell]

1871 - Birth / Brahmananda Saraswati - "Brahmananda Saraswati (1871-1953) a Hindu Guru who was born into a Brahmin family in the village of Gana, near Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh, India. At the age of nine he left home to wander and follow a spiritual path of renunciation. At the age of 14 he found his master, Dandi Swami Krishnanand Saraswati, in Uttar Kashi. Later, following his master's instructions, he retired to a cave, resolving not to emerge until he had attained enlightenment. In 1904 he was initiated into the order of "Sannyas" by his Master at the Kumbh Mela.[1] In 1941, after decades of meditation and maintaining silence, Swami Brahmananda Saraswati finally accepted repeated requests to become the Shankaracharya (spiritual head) of Jyotirmath, a position that had been vacant for about 150 years.[citation needed] [....] Swami Brahmananda Saraswati was the guru of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, who became his devotee shortly before his installation and later became his personal assistant. The Maharishi's devotees respect and revere "Guru Dev" as their Paramguru. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi stated that he was merely a conduit for the grace of his Guru. It is the blessings of Guru Dev that are invoked during the TM Puja initiation ceremony, that each TM practitioner experiences.[citation needed] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmananda_Saraswati] - [T.D. - 12/15/08]

1872 - Born / Baird Spalding - October 3rd, 1872: "Baird Thomas Spalding (1872–1953) was an American writer. He is the author of the spiritual book series: Life and Teaching of the Masters of the Far East. [....] Despite questions about Spalding's authenticity, his books have remained in print since his death and his stories have helped to popularize the concept of Ascended Masters which became a common meme in New Age and alternative religious movements during the twentieth century. During the 1920s, Spalding was a personal acquaintance of Guy Ballard, founder of the I AM activity, and similar themes to Spalding can be seen in Ascended Master groups such as the Church Universal and Triumphant and the writings of Elizabeth Clare Prophet. Spalding is named as an influence in the writings of New Age figures such as JZ Knight, Paul Baumann of the Methernitha sect and Father Divine. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baird_Thomas_Spalding]

1872 - Dutch Translation / Oera Linda Book - 1872: "The Oera Linda Book is a 19th century Frisian manuscript. It purports to cover historical, mythological, and religious themes of remote antiquity, compiled between 2194 BC and AD 803. [NP] The manuscript's author is not known with certainty, and it is hence unknown whether the intention was to produce a hoax, a parody or simply an exercise in poetic fantasy. [NP] The manuscript first came to public awareness in the 1860s. In 1872, Jan Gerhardus Ottema published a Dutch translation and defended it as "genuine". Over the next few years there was a heated public controversy, but by 1879 it was universally recognized that the text was a recent composition. Nevertheless, a public controversy was revived in the context of 1930s Nazi occultism[citation needed], and the book is still occasionally brought up in esotericism and "Atlantis" literature. [NP] Goffe Jensma published a monograph on the manuscript in 2004, De gemaskerde god, including a new translation and a discussion of the history of its reception. Jensma concludes that it was likely intended as a "hoax to fool some nationalist Frisians and orthodox Christians", as well as an "experiential exemplary exercise" by Dutch theologian and poet François Haverschmidt.[1][2] [....] The earliest portion of the Oera Linda Book, namely Frya’s Tex, was supposedly composed in 2194 BC, whereas the most recent part, the letter of Hidde Oera Linda, dates to AD 1256. Almost half of the entire book comprises The Book of Adela’s Followers, the original text around which the rest grew. It is purported to have been compiled in the 6th century BC from a mixture of contemporary writings and ancient inscriptions. The last two sections of the Oera Linda Book, the writings of Konered and Beden, contain a number of lacunae and the book itself breaks off in mid-sentence. [....] The book articulates the first known example of the concept of root races (though it does not call them that), and probably influenced H.P. Blavatsky to develop her own, much more elaborate ideas on the subject, as outlined in The Secret Doctrine (1888).[citation needed] It also mentions Atland (the name given to Atlantis by the 17th century scholar Olof Rudbeck), which was supposedly submerged in 2193 BC, the same year as 19th century Dutch and Frisian almanacs, following traditional Biblical chronology, gave for Noah's flood.[7] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oera_Linda]

*Links: http://oeralinda.angelfire.com/

1873 - Birth / Julian Johnson - 1873: "Julian Philip Matthew Johnson (1873-1939) was an American surgeon and author of several books on Eastern spirituality. He spent much of the 1930s in India, was associated with the Radha Soami Satsang Beas movement and Surat Shabd Yoga, and wrote five books (one unpublished) as a result of his experiences. [NP] The writings of Paul Twitchell, the founder of ECKANKAR,[1] show many close similarities to Johnson's, and Twitchell has in fact been accused of extensively plagiarizing from Johnson's works, particularly Johnson's The Path of the Masters. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julian_Johnson]

1873 - Helena P. Blavatsky / New York - 1848-1858: "[....] It was in 1873 that she [Helena P. Blavatsky] emigrated to New York City. Impressing people with her professed psychic abilities, she was spurred on to continue her mediumship. Mediumship (among other psychical and spiritual sciences of the time), based upon the belief known as Spiritualism which began at Rochester, NY, was a widely popular and fast-spreading field upon which Blavatsky based her career.[10] [....] "

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Petrovna_Blavatsky]

1874 - Helena P. Blavatsky & Henry Steel Olcott - "[....] In 1874 at the farm of the Eddy Brothers, Helena [Helena P. Blavatsky] met Henry Steel Olcott, a lawyer, agricultural expert, and journalist who covered the Spiritualist phenomenon. Soon they were working together in the 'Lamasery' (alternate spelling: 'Lamastery') where her book Isis Unveiled was written. [....] Blavatsky married her second husband, Michael C. Betanelly on April 3, 1875 in New York City. She separated from Betanelly after a few months, and their divorce was legalized on May 25, 1878. On July 8, 1878, she became a naturalized citizen of the United States, but after leaving for India later that year she never returned to the country.[9] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Petrovna_Blavatsky]

1875 - Founded / "Arya Samaj" - April 10th, 1875: "Arya Samaj (Sanskrit arya samaja ... 'Aryan Society') is a Hindu reform movement founded by Swami Dayananda on 10 April 1875.[1] He was a sannyasi who believed in the infallible authority of the Vedas. Dayananda emphasized the ideals of brahmacharya (chastity). There are 3–4 million followers of Arya Samaj worldwide. [....] Between 1869 and 1873, Swami Dayananda Saraswati, a native of Gujarat, made his first attempt at reform in his native India. This attempt took the form of the establishment of 'Vedic Schools' which put an emphasis on Vedic values, culture and religion to its students. The first was established at Farrukhabad in 1869, with 50 students enrolled in its first year. This initial success led to the founding of four additional schools in rapid succession at Mirzapur (1870), Kasganj (1870), Chhalesar (1870) and Varanasi (1873). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arya_Samaj]

1875 - Birth / Aleister Crowley - October 12th, 1875: "Aleister Crowley (... 1875–1947), born Edward Alexander Crowley, and also known as both Frater Perdurabo and The Great Beast, was an influential English occultist, astrologer, mystic and ceremonial magician, responsible for founding the religious philosophy of Thelema. He was also successful in various other fields, including mountaineering, chess and poetry. In his role as the founder of the Thelemite philosophy, he came to see himself as the prophet who was entrusted with informing humanity that it was entering the new Aeon of Horus in the early twentieth century. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleister_Crowley]

1875 - Trivia / Arya Samaj & Sikhism - 1875: "[....] In 1875, the Arya Samaj established itself in Punjab, and some of its members began stating publicly that Sikhism is a degraded form of Hinduism[2][3] using what was seen as derogatory language in reference to Sikh Gurus and their writings.[2][3][4] Leaders in the Sikh community, however, showed resolve in maintaining the status of their religion as independent[5] and unique[6], and the statements of the Arya Samaj activists were summarily denounced as acts of aggression with the intent of destroying Sikh religious identity[4]. Moreover Swami Dayanand called Guru Nanak Dev a 'dambi', meaning hypocrite. It was also alleged that the Arya Samaj, which had taken an increasingly active role in certain Sikh Gurdwaras, was introducing practices that were contrary to Sikh principles[7] and behaving in ways which would prove detrimental to the Sikh faith. In response, organizational efforts such as Singh Sabha and Gurdwara Sudhar Movement were launched for countering Arya Samaj influence and peacefully reclaiming control of Sikh Gurdwaras. In spite of these incidences, there have been some positive affiliation like Bhagat Singh, born as a Sikh, a renowned Indian independence revolutionary was deeply influenced from the Arya Samaj philosophies and worked with other legendary Arya Samaj revolutionaries like Ram Prasad Bismil for the independence struggle. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arya_Samaj]

1875 - Foundation / Theosophical Society - "[....] While living in New York City, she [Helena P. Blavatsky] founded the Theosophical Society in September 1875, with Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge and others. Blavatsky wrote that all religions were both true in their inner teachings and problematic or imperfect in their external conventional manifestations.[citation needed] Her writings connecting esoteric spiritual knowledge with new science may be considered to be the first instance of what is now called New Age thinking.[11] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Petrovna_Blavatsky]

1877 - Isis Unveiled / H. P. Blavatsky - "[....] The idea of a secret organization of enlightened mystics, guiding the spiritual development of the human race, was pioneered in the late eighteenth century by Karl von Eckartshausen in his book The Cloud upon the Sanctuary; Eckartshausen called this body of mystics, who remained active after their physical deaths on earth, the Council of Light.[2][3] Eckartshausen's proposed communion of living and dead mystics, in turn, drew partially on Christian ideas such as the Communion of the Saints, and partially on previously circulating European ideas about secret societies of enlightened, mystical, or magic adepts typified by the Rosicrucians and the Illuminati.[4] [....] Eckartshausen's idea was expanded in the teachings of H. P. Blavatsky as developed by C. W. Leadbeater, Alice Bailey and Helena Roerich. Blavatsky, founder of the Theosophical Society, attributed her teachings to just such a body of adepts; in Isis Unveiled, she called the revealers of her teachings the 'Masters of the Hidden Brotherhood' or the 'Mahatmas'. Blavatsky claimed that she had made physical contact with these adepts' earthly representatives in Tibet; but also, that she continued to receive teachings from them through psychic channels, through her abilities of spirit mediumship.[6] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_White_Brotherhood]

*Trivia: "[....] This fantastic assemblage of spiritual beings [God-Eaters] do their work under a supernatural leader named Yaubl Sacabi. I [Paul Twitchell] was received by this exalted being through Rebazar Tarzs. He accompanied me to this strange city which looked something like the land of Oz. Baird Spaulding [Baird Spalding] touched upon the truth in his book, 'The Lives and Teachers of the Masters of The Far East,' but never got close to Agam Des. He was kept away for reasons unknown. [NP] The God-Eaters are said to have a longevity like the spiritual beings in Spaulding's [Baird Spaulding a.k.a. Baird Spalding] books, which would put the aged citizens of Hunza down as babes-in-arms. It is reputed they revitalized their bodies when necessary with the cosmic spirit. Yaubl Sacabi is said to be an ancient being in age, yet when I have seen him while visiting Agam Des, he appeared to be a man in his middle thirties. [NP] Some occult groups come nearer the truth than they realize. The Cabalists named their hierarchy in an order which closely resembles the God-Eaters' arrangement of spiritual government. Madame Blavatsky was inside this spiritual city of Agam Des, years ago, and she named these beings, the White Brotherhood for reasons of her own. The early Sufis knew something of the truth of these secret teachers. Plato called them the shadowy people. Frater X writes of a similar group in South America called the Green Robe monks. [....]" [Based on: Introduction to ECKANKAR, by Paul Twitchell, Copyright 1966, p. 35]

1877 - Trivia / Theosophical Society & Arya Samaj - 1877: "[....] In 1877, a meeting occurred in America between some leading members of the Theosophical Society, founded in 1875, and Mulji Thakarshi, an individual who was present in the establishment of the Bombay Arya Samaj that same year. During the course of the exchange, it became clear that the two societies held many views in common, and efforts were undertaken to bring their leaders into closer contact. As a result, correspondence began between Henry Steel Olcott, one of the co-founders of the New York Theosophical Society, and Harish Chandra Chintamani, the acting president of the Bombay Arya Samaj. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arya_Samaj]

1878 - Died / Shiv Dayal Singh - June 15th, 1878: "Reportedly died this date in history: Shiv Dayal Singh [1st Satguru of Radhasoami]." See link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiv_Dayal_Singh

*Trivia: "[....] On his deathbed, Shiv Dayal Singh once again credited Salig Ram, his chief disciple, as the source for the teachings of Radhasoami, when he said:

"The Faith I had given out, was that of Sat Nam and Anami. Radhasoami Faith has been introduced by Salig Ram. You should let it also continue."

[Based on: http://www.littleknownpubs.com/Dialog_Ch_Five.htm]

1878 - Agra lineage : / Rai Saligram - " 'Hazur' Rai Saligram 1878-1898"

1878 - Ministry / Radhaji Narayan Dei - "Radhaji Narayan Dei / Ministry:1878 to 1894 / Guru: Shiv Dayal Singh / Successors:none (or, at least, no one popularly known). / Center:Panni Gali, Agra / Distinctions:Wife and successor of Shiv Dayal Singh. One of only a few women in the Radhasoami tradition to be accorded an elevated status within the spiritual community. Served as a guru and a guide to women devotees in Agra. Instrumental in helping her husband's ministry. / Sources:Radhasoami Faith: History and Tenets; Biography of Soamiji Maharaj by Chachaji Maharaj [Pratap Singh]; and Holy Epistles (Volumes One and Two)."

1878 - Ministry / Chachaji Partap Singh - "Chachaji Partap Singh / Ministry: 1878 to 1911 [Unclear when he started acting as a guru] / Guru: Shiv Dayal Singh / Successors: Shyam Lal; Sudarshan Singh; and K.A. Bavnani / Center: Soami Bagh, Agra / Distinctions: Youngest brother of Shiv Dayal Singh, the founder of Radhasoami. First President of the Central Administrative Council. / Sources: Bhaktamal of the Radhasoami Faith; History of the Radhasoami Faith & Tenets; and Biography of Soamiji Maharaj."

1878 - Ministry / Gharib Das - "Gharib Das / Ministry:1878 to 1917 / Guru:Shiv Dayal Singh / Successors:Ram Behari Lal / Center:Sarai Rohilla, Delhi / Distinctions:Least known of Shiv Dayal Singh's successors. A physically blind sadhu, who kept on friendly terms with Jaimal Singh. / Sources: Agam Prasad Mathur, Radhasoami Faith; The Way Out Is In by Ram Behari Lal; and Atma Gyan by Ram Behari Lal."

1878 - Ministry / Sanmukh Das - "Sanmukh Das / Ministry: 1878 to date unknown Guru: Shiv Dayal Singh / Successors: none / Center:Soami Bagh, Agra / Distinctions:Sadhu successor of Shiv Dayal Singh; apparently initiated sadhus and other wandering religious mendicants into the path; unclear what relationship he had with his initiates (whether he acted as a representative for Soamiji's teachings or as a full fledged guru in his own right). / Sources:Bhaktamal of the Radhasoami Faith ; Biography of Soamiji Maharaj by Chachaji Maharaj [Pratap Singh]; and Radhasoami Faith: History and Tenets by S.D. Maheshwari."

1879 - Born / Talbot Mundy - April 23rd, 1879: "Talbot Mundy (born William Lancaster Gribbon) (April 23, 1879 – August 5, 1940) was an English writer. He also wrote under the pseudonym Walter Galt. [NP] Born in London, at age 16 he ran away from home and began an odyssey in India, Africa, and other parts of the Near and Far East. By age 29, he had begun using the name Talbot Mundy, and a year later arrived in the United States, starting his writing career in 1911. [...] Many of his novels, including his first novel Rung Ho!, and his most famous work King of the Khyber Rifles, are set in India during the British Raj in which the loyal British officers encounter ancient Indian mysticism. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talbot_Mundy]

1879 - Alfred Percy Sinnett / India - "[....] By 1879, Sinnett [A. P. Sinnett - 18 January 1840  to 26 June 1921] had moved to India where he was '... the Editor of The Pioneer, the leading English Daily of India...'[2] He relates in his book, The Occult World that: '...on the first occasion of my making Madame Blavatsky's acquaintance she became a guest at my home at Allahabad and remained there for six weeks...' [3] [NP] In 1880 Helena Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcott visited the Sinnetts at their summer-home in Simla. The Mahatma letters, which generated the controversy that later helped lead to the split of the Theosophical Society, were mostly written to Sinnett or his wife, Patience. [NP] By 1889, Sinnett was back in England, and asked Charles Webster Leadbeater to come back to England to tutor his son Percy and George Arundale. Leadbeater agreed and brought with him one of his pupils Curuppumullage Jinarajadasa. Using "astral clairvoyance" Leadbeater assisted William Scott-Elliot to write his book The Story of Atlantis, for which Sinnett wrote the preface. [NP] Sinnett was later President of the London Lodge of the Society. [NP] By 1901, Sinnett is listed as an author. His son Percy is also listed as an author and born in India.[4]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Percy_Sinnett]

1879 - Henry Olcott, Helena Blavatsky visit Swami Dayanand - 1879: "[....] Between 1879 and 1881, the founders of the Theosophical Society, Henry Olcott and Helena Blavatsky, paid Swami Dayanand several visits while touring India. Through the course of their discussions and correspondence, it became clear that the differences between the two societies were not, as previously assumed, limited to relatively minor issues, but extended to what the Swami viewed as central tenets of the Vedic Religion. [NP] The main point of contention was in regards to the nature of God. While the Theosophists asserted that the highest Divinity is an impersonal Principle, Swami Dayanand maintained that the Vedas and their allied literature clearly teach that God is a personal Being – in his words, 'the Personification of Being, Knowledge and Bliss'. Thus, the line dividing the two organizations was clearly identified and neither party saw themselves in need of reconsidering their views. Therefore, on the 28th of March, 1882, Swami Dayanand announced that the Arya Samaj had officially cut off all ties with the Theosophical Society. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arya_Samaj]

1881 - Mahatma Letters / Koot Hoomi? - "The idea of a secret organization of enlightened mystics, guiding the spiritual development of the human race, was pioneered in the late eighteenth century by Karl von Eckartshausen in his book The Cloud upon the Sanctuary; Eckartshausen called this body of mystics, who remained active after their physical deaths on earth, the "council of light".[2][3] Eckartshausen's proposed communion of living and dead mystics, in turn, drew partially on Christian ideas such as the Communion of the Saints, and partially on previously circulating European ideas about secret societies of enlightened, mystical, or magic adepts typified by the Rosicrucians and the Illuminati.[4] [NP] The Mahatma Letters began publication in 1881 with information purportedly revealed by 'Koot Hoomi' to Alfred Percy Sinnett, and were also influential on the early development of the tradition. Koot Hoomi, through Sinnett, revealed that high ranking members of mystic organizations in India and Tibet were able to maintain regular telepathic contact with one another, and thus were able to communicate to each other, and also to Sinnett, without the need for either written or oral communications, and in a manner similar to the way that spirit mediums claimed to communicate with the dead. The letters published by Sinnett, which proposed the controversial doctrine of reincarnation, were said to have been revealed through this means.[5] [NP] Eckartshausen's idea was expanded in the teachings of H. P. Blavatsky as developed by C. W. Leadbeater, Alice Bailey and Helena Roerich. Blavatsky, founder of the Theosophical Society, attributed her teachings to just such a body of adepts; in Isis Unveiled, she called the revealers of her teachings the 'Masters of the Hidden Brotherhood' or the 'Mahatmas'. Blavatsky claimed that she had made physical contact with these adepts' earthly representatives in Tibet; but also, that she continued to receive teachings from them through psychic channels, through her abilities of spirit mediumship.[6] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_White_Brotherhood] - [T.D. - 12/13/08]

*Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koot_Hoomi
             http://www.ascendedmasters.ac/kuthumi.html

*Trivia: "[....] Madame Blavatsky, who founded the Theosophical Society, made the world acquainted with the masters of the White brotherhood. Koot Hooni, the leader of these masters, and many others of those in the White Brotherhood, have records of having lived for many centuries. But it is suspected that the line of ECK masters have outlived most of them. [....]" [Based on: IN MY SOUL I AM FREE, by Brad Steiger, Copyright 1968?, p. 193]

*Links: http://tinyurl.com/4ryfnxm

1882 - Birth / Hazrat Inayat Khan - July 5th, 1882: "Hazrat Inayat Khan (July 5, 1882 – February 5, 1927) was the founder of Universal Sufism and the Sufi Order International. He initially came to the West [1910] as a representative of several traditions of classical Indian music, having received the title Tansen from the Nizam of Hyderabad. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inayat_Khan] - [T.D. 04/12/07]

1884 - Sardar Bahadur Jagat Singh Ji - "Sardar Bahadur Jagat Singh Ji (1884-1951) was one of six people who over a period of about nine years came to be regarded as spiritual successors of Shiv Dayal Singh, the first Satguru of 'Radhasoami Faith,' often referred to as Sant Mat, a movement of Surat Shabd Yoga, which includes esoteric teaching about the Shabd. Reportedly, his tenure ran from 1948 to1951."

*Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radha_Soami_Satsang_Beas]

1884 - Eduard Schuré & Helena Blavatsky - 1884: "[...] In 1884, he [Eduard Schuré] met the Russian occultist Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. Although unwelcome in the Theosophical Society, he nevertheless entered. In 1889, he published, after some smaller works on similar topics, his major work Les Grands Initiés (The Great Initiates). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89douard_Schur%C3%A9]

(?) A.D. - Eck Master Sudar Singh? - 1885? "The next Master was Sudar Singh of Allahabad who spread ECK to Europe and other places on the globe. He lived into his nineties before passing away." [Based on: The Spiritual Notebook, by Paul Twitchell, 10th printing 1983, p. 195]

*Trivia: "Sudar Singh was reported to be approximately 105 years old at the time of his death." [Based on: ECKANKAR, Compiled Writings Volume 1, Paul Twitchell - Copyright 1975 by Gail T. Gross, p. 84. Bompiled from: All About ECK, Paul Twitchell, Copyright 1968]

*Trivia: Sudar Singh was a married man who had a son that went to Oxford, according to Paul Twitchell in a 1969 Eckankar audiotape tape (# ?), side one, early on. - D.R.D..

*Trivia: "Tamaqui. tah-MAH-kee. A minor ECK Master during the latter part of the nineteenth century in Germany." [Based on: A Cosmic Sea of Words - The Eckankar Lexicon, by Harold Klemp (Copyright 1998), p. 205]

1887 - Birth / Nakano Yonosuke - "Ananaikyo - An Omoto-lineage religion founded by Nakano Yonosuke (1887-1974). " *Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shrine_Shinto

1888 - Root Races Trivia / Helena P. Blavatsky - "Root Races are stages in human evolution in the esoteric cosmology of theosophist Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, as described in her book The Secret Doctrine (1888). These races were said to have existed on now-lost continents. Blavatsky's model was developed by later theosophists, most notably William Scott-Elliot in The Story of Atlantis (1896) and The Lost Lemuria (1904). Annie Besant further developed the model in Man: Whence, How and Whither (1913). Both Besant and Scott-Elliot relied on information from Charles Webster Leadbeater obtained by 'astral clairvoyance'. Further elaboration was provided by Rudolf Steiner in Atlantis and Lemuria (1913).[1] Rudolf Steiner, and subsequent theosophist authors, have called the time periods associated with these races, Epochs (Steiner felt that the term 'race' was not adequate anymore for modern humanity). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Root_Race]

1888 - The Secret Doctrine / Helena P. Blavatsky - 1888: "The Secret Doctrine, the Synthesis of Science, Religion and Philosophy, a book originally published as two volumes in 1888, is Helena P. Blavatsky's magnum opus. The first volume is named Cosmogenesis, the second Anthropogenesis. It was an influential example of the revival of interest in esoteric and occult ideas in the modern age, in particular because of its claim to reconcile ancient eastern wisdom with modern science. [NP] Blavatsky claimed that its contents had been revealed to her by 'mahatmas' who had retained knowledge of mankind's spiritual history, knowledge that it was now possible, in part, to reveal. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Secret_Doctrine]

*Links: http://www.archive.org/stream/secretdoctrine00blav#page/n5/mode/2up

1889 - The Great Initiates / Eduard Schuré - "[...] In 1884, he [Eduard Schuré] met the Russian occultist Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. Although unwelcome in the Theosophical Society, he nevertheless entered. In 1889, he published, after some smaller works on similar topics, his major work Les Grands Initiés (The Great Initiates). [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89douard_Schur%C3%A9]

1891 - Configuration - "Neptune-Pluto [7-8 Gemini] conjunction [1891-1892]. Neptune-Pluto cycles last about 495 years - half a millennium. The movements of Pluto, in history, seem to chart the actual mechanics of fundamental factual change. Pluto's keyword, 'transformation', has 'form' in the middle of it. The movements of Neptune chart evolving social imagery and perceptual constructs - ideas, beliefs and contexts of understanding. When event-fundamentals and beliefs-perceptions interact, we get the basic undertow of history and its themes. Thus, in Neptune-Pluto cycles, we see a basic driving-force which moves and drives historic tendencies and trends. What humans do with this is what makes our world." [Link: 1]

*Trivia: "According to the Pythagorean/NeoPlatonic Greeks and Egyptians, with each Cycle culmination and for a hundred years on either side of it, it was prophesied that an influx of special souls would be incarnating - variously called savants, masters, teachers, messiahs, avatars, and bodhisattvas by different traditions - whose chosen work was to raise overall planetary consciousness. Right on schedule, the 20th century, which marks the beginning of a new Phoenix Cycle [1,900-2,100], has already seen the advent of numerous great minds and spirits. As we approach the peak year of 2,000 in the present cycle, many more are prophesied to arrive." [Link: 1]

1891 - Died / Helena P. Blavatsky - May 8th, 1891: "[....] Following Blavatsky's death [May 18th, 1891], the Theosophical Society split in two, each part claiming her as its 'rightful progenitor'.[21] One branch was headed by her protégé, Annie Besant, and the other, the American Section, by her friend W. Q. Judge. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_Petrovna_Blavatsky]

1891 - Founded / Radha Soami Satsang Beas - 1891:

Radha Soami Satsang Beas (RSSB) was founded by Baba Jaimal Singh Ji Maharaj in 1891 at a site called Dera Baba Jaimal Singh on the West bank of the River Beas in the Punjab of Northern India. [1] Jaimal Singh was one of six people who over a period of about nine years came to be regarded as spiritual successors of Shiv Dayal Singh, the first Satguru of “Radhasoami Faith,” often referred to as Sant Mat, a movement of Surat Shabd Yoga, which includes esoteric teaching about the Shabd. A chart of this RSSB lineage and the five other successor lineages helps show the connections among many of the Sant Mat guru lines and branches. [2] The RSSB lineage of spiritual leaders with the dates of their births, deaths, and tenures is as follows:

Baba Jaimal Singh (1839 – 1903): 1891 – 1903

Baba Sawan Singh (1858 – 1948): 1903 – 1948

Sardar Bahadur Jagat Singh (1884 – 1951): 1948 – 1951

Maharaj Ji Charan Singh (1902 – 1990): 1951 – 1990

Baba Gurinder Singh (1954 – ): 1990 – Present

Adherents worldwide number in the neighborhood of 2,000,000 people.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radha_Soami_Satsang_Beas]

1892 - Birth / Shri Baba Sita Ram Das Onkarnath - February 17th, 1892: "Shri Baba Sita Ram Das Onkarnath was a holy child born on 17th February 1892 in the village Keota on the bank of the holy Ganga, in Hooghly district, Bengal."

[Based on: https://groups.google.com/forum/?hl=en&fromgroups#!topic/alt.religion.eckankar/oUZf3VEv-Ro]

*Links: http://www.omkarnathmission.org/sitaram.html

1893 - Birth / Paramahansa Yogananda - January 5th, 1893: "Pôromôhongsho Joganondo, Hindi: ... ; January 5, 1893–March 7, 1952), was an Indian yogi and guru [originally known as Mukunda Lal Gosh]. He was instrumental in bringing the teachings of meditation and Kriya Yoga to the West. His book, Autobiography of a Yogi, has introduced several generations to the timeless wisdom of India. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paramahansa_Yogananda] - [T.D. - 01/15/07]

*Trivia: "[....] Among Paramahamsa Yogananda's many direct disciples are: Daya Mata, Roy Eugene Davis, Donald Walters (a.k.a. Swami Kriyananda), J. J. Lynn (a.k.a. Rajarshi Janakananda), Smt. Gyanamata, Yogacharya Oliver Black, Bob Raymer, and Paramahamsa Hariharananda."

[Based on: http://www.hariharananda.org/english/who_we_are/kriya/kriya_linage.htm] - [T.D. - 01/15/07]

1893 - World Parliament of Religions - September 11th-27th, 1893: "[....] The 1893 Parliament, which ran from September 11 to September 27, had marked the first formal gathering of representatives of Eastern and Western spiritual traditions. Today it is recognized as the occasion of the birth of formal interreligious dialogue worldwide. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Parliament_of_Religions] - [T.D. - 09/18/09]

*Trivia: "[....] In 1893, the first Parliament on World Religions was held in connection with the World's Fair in Chicago. Spiritual masters, swamis, and gurus washed onto American shores en masse for the first time, making Eastern mysticism accessible - and acceptable - to thousands of Americans. [NP] After wowing the crowds at the world religions expo, Indian Swami Vivekananda (1862-1902) remained in this country to form the Vedanta Society. Paramahansa Yogananda arrived in 1920 and later established the Self-Realization Fellowship. And 'the silent, self-avowed avatar' Meher Baba came to the United States in the early 1930s to found the Islamic-oriented Friends of Meher Baba group.15 [....]"

*Link: http://www.ccel.us/newage.ch5.html

*Trivia: "Swami Vivekananda at the World Congress of Religions. September 11, 1893."

[Based on: http://www.swamij.com/swami-vivekananda-1893.htm] - [T.D. - 01/01/2007]

*Trivia: "[....] Abroad, he had some interactions with Max Mueller. Nikola Tesla was one of those influenced by the Vedic philosophy teachings of the Swami Vivekananda."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swami_Vivekananda] - [T.D. - 01/07/07]

*Trivia: "Swami Vivekananda was the first Indian to be invited to accept the chair of Oriental Philosophy at Harvard University. India celebrates National Youth Day on his birthday. Vivekananda Vidyapith Academy of Indian Philosophy and Culture in NJ, USA, is named after him. The Swami Vivekananda International Convention Centre, inaugurated in April 2005 in Pailles, Mauritius, is also named after him."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swami_Vivekananda] - [T.D. - 01/07/07]

1893 - The Evolution of Humanity / William Scott-Elliot - 1893: "Scott-Elliot was an investment banker and amateur anthropologist. An early member of the London Lodge of the Theosophical society, in 1893 he wrote The Evolution of Humanity, issued as part of the Transactions of the London Lodge (issue 17).[1] [NP] Scott-Elliot came into contact with theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater who said he received knowledge about ancient Atlantis and Lemuria from the Theosophical Masters by 'astral clairvoyance.' Leadbeater transmitted his clairvoyant findings to Scott-Elliot, who undertook scholarly research to back them up. Despite Leadbeater's contributions, Scott-Elliot was listed as the sole author of the resulting book The Story of Atlantis, which was published with a preface by Alfred Percy Sinnett.[2] [NP] In 1899 he was awarded the T. Subba Row Medal for his contributions to 'esoteric science and philosophy'. In 1904 he added detail on Lemuria in The Lost Lemuria, attempting to use contemporary scientific evidence to back up Leadbeater's claims. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Scott-Elliot]

1894 - Birth / Kirpal Singh - February 6th, 1894:

"Sant Kirpal Singh (6 February 1894–21 August 1974) was a Guru who was born in Sayyad Kasran, a part of the Punjab which now belongs to Pakistan. [NP] He taught the unity of all religions and the birthright of man to attain self-knowledge and God-knowledge. Under the guidance of his Surat Shabd Yoga or Sant Mat guru, Baba Sawan Singh, of Radha Soami Satsang Beas, (see also "A brief life-sketch of Hazur Baba Sawan Singh Ji" [1] and "How I met my Master" [2]) he says he experienced what is described in the scriptures about God. According to his disciples, he dedicated his whole life to the ideal of unity: the brotherhood of man under the fatherhood of God. [....] Sant Kirpal Singh's legacy may lie chiefly in the wealth of books he wrote during his lifetime; the Master made all of these works available without copyright, saying "the gifts of God, like sunlight, are all free." [....]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirpal_Singh]

*Trivia:

Born on 6 February 1894 in Sayyad Kasran, a part of the Punjab which now belongs to Pakistan, Sant Kirpal Singh was confronted with nationalism, religious intolerance, and bigotry since His early youth. In view of the suffering humanity He deeply thought about the nature of man and sought for a solution to the permanent discord leading to violent conflicts.

After a profound study of the basic scriptures of the Sikhs, Christians, Moslems, Buddhists, Zoroastrians etc., He found that they all give out the same basic truth and speak about the birthright of man to attain self-knowledge and God-knowledge. At the feet of His spiritual teacher Baba Sawan Singh He experienced practically what is described in the scriptures. He dedicated His whole life to the ideal of unity: the brotherhood of man under the fatherhood of God.

By lectures, books, and conferences, but first and foremost by His own example He brought about a deep understanding of the inner unity of all life, and people from all over the world, from different religions and cultures came to His residence in Delhi.

Hazur Baba Sawan Singh Ji Maharaj gave the task of carrying on his spiritual work to Sant Kirpal Singh Ji Maharaj. Well versed in the comparative study of religions, Sant Kirpal Singh Ji was able to make the teachings easily understood by people in the West. He presented spirituality as a science.

Traveling to the West three times and touring India extensively, he spread the spiritual teachings well beyond the boundaries of India. He established Sawan Ashram in Delhi, India, where seekers from around the globe could learn the art of meditation and spiritual living.

In 1956 in Delhi, he gave the inaugural address to the Ninth General Session of UNESCO. His speech World Peace in the Atomic Age is a road map for attaining world peace.

Due to His universal view He could create mutual understanding among the different religions. During fourteen years He was repeatedly elected president of the World Fellowship of Religions which came into being in 1957. On three world tours in 1955, 1963, and 1972 He visited major cities in the Western world, where He met religious leaders, politicians, and personalities of the society. Everywhere He conveyed the importance of self-knowledge and God-knowledge and emphasized the need of selfless service. His efforts to create understanding from man to man, for peace in the world and for tolerance among the religions have been recognized by many honours.

His efforts reached a summit when He convened the first World Conference on Unity of Man, which took place in Delhi from 3 to 6 February 1974. Religious, political, and social leaders from all over India, and delegates from approximately 18 countries participated in the conference. This World Conference was the beginning of the Unity of Man movement. As a result of the conference Sant Kirpal Singh was invited by the government to address to the Indian Parliament. When He spoke to the members of the Lokh Sabha on 1 August 1974, it was the first time that a spiritual leader was given that honour.

The God-realized people stand on the edge of the world and survey the scene with anall-encompassing eye, but the poor peoplewho are being tossed about on the oceanof torment, what can they know of the truesituation?

Literate, illiterate, singers, lecturers, readers of the holy books - all are drifting in the sea of life. Lacking in realization, they have no knowledge of their futile condition.

A sleeping man cannot awaken another; who will awaken those who sleepat the level of mind and senses?

One can become learned through the help of a learned man, and a doctor can teach another medicine; an engineer can teach engineering, and so on.

It follows naturally that only a God-realized person can give an experience of the Godpower.

"The Gurmukh has gone across; He has embraced the Truth."

Sant Kirpal Singh

[Based on: http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-18.html] - [T.D. - 08/05/08]
http://web.archive.org/web/20080619132359/http://santhakar.tripod.com/saints/bio-18.html

1894 - Birth / Meher Baba - Meher Baba (February 25, 1894 - January 31, 1969) was a spiritual teacher who lived in India. Baba's real birth name was Merwan Irani and his parents' names were Sheriar and Shireen Irani. His family lived in India, but they were of Persian descent. Today Persia is called Iran. They were not Hindus or Muslims like most Indians at that time, but were of the Zoroastrian religion. [....]"

[Based on: http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meher_Baba] - [T.D. - 04/24/10]

1894 - Initiation / Sawan Singh - October 15th, 1894:

[....] After several conferences with Baba Ji [Baba Jaimal Singh] I was thoroughly convinced and received Initiation [into the secrets of surat shabd yoga] from him on the 15th day of October, 1894.

The turning point in Sawan Singh's life came when he met his spiritual guru, Baba Jaimal Singh, and took initiation under him in the path of surat shabd yoga (union of the soul with the divine inner sound). Such was Sawan's readiness that in just over nine years he became an acknowledged master within the Sant Mat and Radhasoami traditions. In fact, except for Maharaj Charan Singh, the Satguru at Beas from 1951 to 1990, Sawan Singh attracted the largest following of any shabd yoga master in history, initiating more than 125,000 people into the mystic practice. [....]

[Based on: http://vclass.mtsac.edu:930/phil/saint.htm]

1894 - The Holy Science / Sri Yukteswar - "The Holy Science is a book written by Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri in 1894 under the title Kaivalya Darsanam. Sri Yukteswar states that he wrote The Holy Science at the request of Mahavatar Babaji.[1] The book compares parallel passages from the Bible and Bhagavad Gita in order to show the unity of all religions. .[2][3] [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Holy_Science] - [T.D. - 10/19/08]

1895 - Birth / Vardis Fisher - March 31st, 1895: "Vardis Alvero Fisher (March 31, 1895, in Annis, Idaho – July 9, 1968, in Hagerman, Idaho) was a well respected writer best known for historical novels of the old West and the monumental 12-volume Testament of Man series of novels, depicting the history of humans from cave to civilization. [....]" Vardis Fisher was born near present-day Rigby, Idaho of a Mormon family and descent. After graduating from the University of Utah in 1920, Vardis acquired a Master of Arts degree (1922) and a Ph.D. (1925) at the University of Chicago. Vardis was an assistant professor of English at the University of Utah (1925-1928) and at New York University (1928-1931), where he was friends with Thomas Wolfe. Vardis also taught as a summer professor at Montana State University (1932-1933). Between 1935 and 1939, he was the director of the Idaho Writer's Project of the WPA, writing several books about Idaho. He was also a newspaper columnist for the Idaho Statesman and Idaho Statewide (which later became the Intermountain Observer). [....] To write the Testament of Man series, Vardis Fisher read over 2,000 books on anthropology, history, psychology, theology and comparative religion. When the series was reprinted by Pyramid Books as mass-market paperbacks in 1960, it had an influence on DC Comics editor Joe Orlando and the comic book Anthro, written and drawn by Howard Post and edited by Orlando. [....]

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vardis_Fisher] - [T.D. - 05/29/10]

*Links: http://www.nowscape.com/atheism/fisher2.htm

1895 - Birth / Jiddu Krishnamurti - May 11th, 1895: "Jiddu Krishnamurti (Telugu: ...) or J. Krishnamurti (Telugu: ...), (May 11, 1895–February 17, 1986) was a well known writer and speaker on philosophical and spiritual subjects. His subject matter included: the purpose of meditation, human relationships, the nature of the mind, and how to enact positive change in global society. [NP] Krishnamurti was born into a Telugu Brahmin family in what was then colonial India. In early adolescence, he had a chance encounter with prominent occultist and high-ranking theosophist C.W. Leadbeater in the grounds of the Theosophical Society headquarters at Adyar in Madras (now Chennai). He was subsequently raised under the tutelage of Annie Besant and C.W. Leadbeater, leaders of the Society at the time, who believed him to be a 'vehicle' for an expected World Teacher. As a young man, he disavowed this idea and dissolved the world-wide organization (the Order of the Star) established to support it. He claimed allegiance to no nationality, caste, religion, or philosophy, and spent the rest of his life traveling the world as an individual speaker, speaking to large and small groups, as well as with interested individuals. He authored a number of books, among them The First and Last Freedom, The Only Revolution, and Krishnamurti's Notebook. In addition, a large collection of his talks and discussions have been published. At age 90, he addressed the United Nations on the subject of peace and awareness, and was awarded the 1984 UN Peace Medal. His last public talk was in Madras, India, in January 1986, a month before his death at home in Ojai, California. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiddu_Krishnamurti] - [T.D. - 12/20/08]

*Trivia: "[....] Since the growth of the theosophist movement in the 19th century, non-Buddhist religious and spiritual movements have adopted the name and selected characteristics of Maitreya for teachers in their traditions. [....]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Teacher] - [T.D. 12/20/08]

1895 - Died / Lahiri Mahasaya - September 26th, 1895: "Lahiri Mahasaya died on September 26, 1895. [1]" [Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lahiri_Mahasaya#cite_note-garland-5]

1896 - Born / Alexander Cannon - "Dr. Alexander Cannon (1896–1963) was a British psychiatrist, occultist, hypnotist and author. He became well known in the 1930s for his occult writings, and more recently for his alleged influence on King Edward VIII shortly before his abdication. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Cannon_%28psychiatrist%29]

1896 - Born / Samuel Leonard Lewis - October 18, 1896: "Samuel Leonard Lewis was born on October 18, 1896, to Jacob Lewis, a vice-president of the Levi Strauss Company, and the former Harriet Rothschild, of the international banking family. [....] In 1968, he joined forces with Pir Vilayat Khan, the eldest son of his first teacher, and there followed a great flowering of the Sufi work in the United States. Murshid Sufi Ahmed Murad Chisti, as Samuel is now known, appointed his own spiritual successor, Moineddin Jablonski, from among his disciples, named several Sheikhs and Khalifs. In December 1970, a fall down the stairs of his San Francisco home gave him a brain concussion, and after two and a half weeks in the hospital he died on January 15, 1971. His work is carried on and spread by his energetic and devoted disciples. [....]" [05/07/10]

*Link: http://www.ruhaniat.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=150&Itemid=143

1896 - "Queen Moo and the Egyptian Sphinx" - 1896: The first recorded use of the term "Naacal" is contained in Augustus Le Plongeon's work from 1896, "Queen Moo and the Egyptian Sphinx." From pages xxiii - xxiv of the preface:

"Perhaps also will be felt the necessity of recovering the libraries of the Maya sages (hidden about the beginning of the Christian era to save them from destruction at the hands of the devastating hordes that invaded their country in those times), and to learn from their contents the wisdom of those ancient philosophers, of which that preserved in the books of the Brahmins is but the reflection. That wisdom was no doubt brought to India, and from there carried to Babylon and Egypt in very remote ages by those Maya adepts (Naacal - "the exalted"), who, starting from the land of their birth as missionaries of religion and civilization, went to Burmah, where they became known as Nagas, established themselves in the Dekkan, whence they carried their civilizing work all over the earth."

According to Augustus Le Plongeon, the Naacals were the missionaries of Mayan religion and civilization. Le Plongeon advocated that the original, great civilization was in Central America which contrasts with Churchward's view.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naacal]

*Trivia: "The next known published use of the word occurred in 1926 when James Churchward used the term in his book, The Lost Continent of Mu, Motherland of Man. [NP] According to James Churchward, the Naacal were the people and civilization of the lost continent of Mu, as well as the name of their language."

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naacal]

*Trivia: In volume 2 of "The Life and Teaching of the Masters of the Far East," Baird T. Spalding makes this remark about the 'Naacals':

"The teachings that Buddha received came from the same source as did those of Osiris but in a different way. The teachings that Buddha contacted came from the Motherland direct to Burma, brought there by the Naacals. Osiris' teachings came direct to him, as his forefathers lived in the Motherland and when he was a young man he had gone to the Motherland to study."

David Bruton, Spalding's biographer revealed in "Baird T. Spalding As I Knew Him" (IEP, 1956) that Spalding's books were a magical autobiography and essentially fiction. Therefore the inference that the Naacals themselves are a fiction or modern myth is strengthened.

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naacal]

1896 - The Story of Atlantis / William Scott-Elliot - 1896: "William Scott-Elliot (sometimes spelled Scott-Elliott) (d.1930) was a theosophist who elaborated Helena Blavatsky's concept of root races in several publications, most notably The Story of Atlantis (1896) and The Lost Lemuria (1904), later combined in 1925 into a single volume called The Story of Atlantis and the Lost Lemuria. [....]"

[Based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Scott-Elliot]

1897 - RADHASOAMI MAT PRAKASH - 1897: "[...] A Brief View of Radhasoami Faith - Being a message of Eternal Peace and Joy to all nationsOriginally written by Hazur Maharaj in english and published in the year 1897A.D. [....]"

http://www.angelfire.com/linux/radhasoami/rsmatpra/rsmatprakash_1.htm

1898 - Agra Lineage / Brahm Sankar Misra - "1898-1907: "Brahm Sankar Misra 1898-1907"

*Links: http://radhasoamis.freeyellow.com/page5.html

1898 - Ministry / Lalaji Maharaj Ajudhia Prasad - "Lalaji Maharaj Ajudhia Prasad / Ministry:1898 to 1926 / Guru:Shiv Dayal Singh / Successors:Gur Prasad / Center:Peepal Mandi, Agra / Distinctions:Blood son of Rai Salig Ram; instrumental in the development of the Central Administrative Council. /  Sources:Biography of Huzur Maharaj; Radhasoami Faith; and Correspondence with Certain Americans (all six volumes)."

1898 - Ministry / Maharishi Data Dayal Shiv Brat Lal - "Maharishi Data Dayal Shiv Brat Lal / Ministry:1898 to 1939 [Most likely did not begin his guru ministry, however, until the beginning of the 20th century] / Guru:Rai Salig Ram / Successors:Faqir Chand; Nandhu Singh; and Sheri-Boa Dutt (Pir Munga) / Center:Lahore; Gopiganj / Distinctions:Perhaps the most prolific author in the history of Radhasoami; estimated to have authored over 3,000 books and pamphlets. / Sources:Light on Ananda Yoga; Dayal Yoga; and Shabd Yoga."

1900s

Page last updated 08/31/12

Send insights, corrections, and/or feedback to: etznab@aol.com. Entitle your mail: "L.O.L. Response."